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The great creation of Turkmenbasy, 
Native land, sovereign state, 
Turkmenistan, light and song of soul. 
Long live and prosper for ever and ever! 

I am ready to give life for native hearth. 

The spirit of ancestors descendants are famous for. 

My land is sacred. My flag flies in the world 

A symbol of the great neutral country flies. 

The great creation of Turkmenbasy, 
Native land, sovereign state, 
Turkmenistan, light and song of soul. 
Long live and prosper for ever and ever! 

My nation is united and is veins of tribes 

Ancestors ' blood, undying flows, 

Ston-ns and misfortunes of times are not dreadful for us. 

Let us increase fame and honour! 

The great creation of Turkmenbasy, 
Native land, sovereign state, 
Turkmenistan, light and song of soul. 
Long live and prosper for ever and ever! 

Mountains, rivers and beauty of steppes. 

Love and destiny, revelation of mine. 

Let my eyes go blind for any cruel look at you. 

Motherland of ancestors and heirs of mine! 















Section 1 "Turkmen" 

Section 2 "The Turkmen's Path" 

Section 3 "Turl^men Nation" 

Section 4 "The State of Turl^men" 

Section 5 "The Spiritual World of the Turkmen" 

I The First Section 


My Dear Nation, 

I This book, written with the help of inspiration sent to my heart by the God who 
1 created this wonderful universe and who is able to do whatever He wills, is 
It rkmen Ruhnama. 

Allah has exposed the T rkmen nation to great and difficult problems since the 

creation of humankind. My people has successfully passed through these hard 
I times. The T rkmen people whose history goes back 5000 years to the period of 
I Oguz Han, contributed to the universal values which emerged in the lands 
■between the Eastern Mediterranean and India, and indeed, cannot be 
runderestimated. In its own lands, the T rkmen people founded more than 70 

states including the Anew, Altyndepe, Margus, Parfiya, Seljuks and 

K ne rgenq states. 

The T rkmen people has a great history which goes back to the Prophet Noah. 

Prophet Noah gave the T rkmen lands to his son Yafes and his descendants. 

' Allah made the T rkmens prolific and their numbers greatly increased. God gave 
I them two special qualities: spiritual richness and courage. As a light for their 
' road, God also strengthened their spiritual and mental capacity with the ability to 
recognize the realities behind events. 

lAfter that He gave His servants the following general name: T RK MAN. 
t rk means core, irnan means light. Therefore, TORK MAN, namely T rkmen 
means "made from light, whose essence is light." The T rkmen name came to 
this world in this way. 

Allah by his sacred command sent the Prophet Noah scriptures including holy 
orders. The Prophet Noah distributed these to the people of his time. The essence 
of these pages was, indeed, beautiful ethics. There were sayings like: 

! "honour-honesty to young men; virtuel to the girls, intellect, sagacity, dignity to 
the old men and women; nobility to the brides." 
Prophet Noah taught his children and youth courage, nobility, keeping their 
promises, hard work, and spiritual virtue. He made them aware that any small 
problem in any of these would mean a problem in their honesty in general. Ttirk 

MAN, that is, T rkmen young men considered verbal attacks on their 
homeland, their relatives and parents, as attacks on their honour and they did not 
hesitate to struggle against these. 

I The Prophet Noah ordered girls, wives and old women to cover their bodies with 
long, loose dresses, and their heads with head scarves, but left their faces open. 
"T rkmens'faces reflect the light of Allah. For that reason sunlight, which is the 
torchlight of God, should fall on their faces and this should not be prevented." 
Prophet Noah also advised repeatedly that men should not hit the faces of their 
children or wife. As for the woman's mouth, he ordered them to cover it. 

I The original T rkmen word is uyat which comes to the meanings of chaste, 
innocence, bashfulness and virtue. 


I This cover become the T rkmen traditional cover or yasmak. Later he ordered 
|the girls to cover their faces with the extensions of their dresses when they made 
eye contact with a man and to bite the extension when they heard ugly words. 

Prophet Noah ordered the elders to be careful, patient and wise when educating 
children and placed on the shoulders of the elders the burden of bringing up 
children suitably equipped with the necessary skills for conditions in the real 
world. Prophet Noah wanted the youth to avoid making errors and not to be 
mistaken. He preached thus: 

"If elders make a mistake once, their juniors make it a thousand times. If the 

father makes a mistake, the son makes a mistake; if the mother makes mistakes, 
I the daughter makes mistakes; if the father-in-law and mother-in-law make a 

mistake, the bride makes a mistake." For this reason he established the rules of 

good manners at home for T RK MAN. 
I This rules of good manners are as follows: 

il. respect your elders 

2. love your juniors 

Prophet Noah said, "If you do- not respect your old people, and do not love your 

juniors then humanity gets lost; and an era of no mercy begins" 

3. respect your father and mother 


^1 He advised children kindly: "Do not talk to your father and mother while looking 
^H in their faces. Do not frown at, make sour face to, them. Do not behave badly to 
^Bthem. If they order something, then do it." This can be internalized by the 
^Bchildren easily and in a short time. 

14. Wear clean and decent clothes. (Outward appearance) 


Prophet Noah ordered: "Good clothes improve the external appearance and make 
j people look good. Choose clothes that suit you." 

5. Keep goods at your home that have been earned by your own labor and efforts. 

Prophet Noah said: "Do not take other people's goods. 
I Do not bring them to your house, and do not make them 
[yours," and added, "The home is also a place to visit." 

6.The decoration of the home, its order, cleanliness and appearance should be 
very good. 

Prophet Noah repeatedly said: "Each material thing should make the soul feel 
comfortable and should increase happiness in life. If your house is dirty, then you 
I feel bad, disoriented and uncomfortable." 

7. Protect the home and its exterior and neighboring areas and the place you live 

Prophet Noah ordered: "Remain aware of and protect wholeheartedly your 
neigbours and your neighbourhood. If an enemy attacks your neigbour's home, 
then you will be the next." 

8. Spritual sublimity 

Prophet Noah advised: "Always maintain sublime targets for your spirit. That 
adds spirit and light to the value of your life, and makes your difficult dealings 

9. Women's make up' 

"Do not be mean with emerald stones for your daughters and wives. Find them 
wherever they are and give them to the women. If one upsets his wife or 
daughter, he is not a T RK MAN since they are very pleasant by nature, and 


their souls are pleasant too. Please them if you want to treat them well. Give them 
I valuable pieces so that they may wear them on their breast, neck, and back. 
[However, never hann their faces; the face itself is more valuable than thousands 
of emerald ieces. Allah's love in people's heart shows itself in people's faces and 
enlightens the world. If you do this, they look better, satisfy your soul, and 
strengthen your spirit." as Prophet Noah advised. He always said: "The 
decoration and beauty of the home are the daughters and the wives. A rose is 
beautiful in the garden; a wife, a daughter is beautiful in the home." 
iMorethan this, the Prophet Noah said: ^^^^^^^ 

' "Keep the fire in the stove ahght and do not allow your family to perish ' Fire is 
life and puts an end to problems, frightening evil away." 

I T rkmens have preserved their religion, their language, and the purity of their 
nation, and created their own customs and legitimate conduct. These multi- 
faceted positive changes derive from the spiritual wealth of the people. Every 

I T rkmen has this spiritual wealth and up until the 18th century by their labor, 
honor, courage, and endurance they determined their fate by themselves with 

|cooperation at various levels, in the family, society, people and nation. 

If you look at the history, over the last 300 years T rkmens' attributes have 
i changed, their power and scope has decreased, conflicts have replaced unity and 

cooperation. My T rkmen nation with neighboring nations, the clans between 
; themselves, and tribes against other tribes, all fell into different conflicts. The 

lack of trust reached such a level in our nation that citizens distrusted citizen, 
, brother distrust- 


ed brother and father distrusted son. They lived without trusting each other or 
I anyone else. I lived in the Soviet era and when I was young I recognized and felt 

ly people's lack of trust in justice and their hopeless view of the future. Our 
[people were not only unable to understand what they were experiencing but also 
I unable to judge their daily life. There was this kind of belief among our people: 

"Day belongs to the 

poweful, and kawurma(2) belongs to those who have canines" They used to 
! belive that whatever you do, you cannot prosper. But why has the fate of 
i T rkmens been so problematic in the last three centuries? 

iThe state was divided, tribes fought with each other, the nation lost its core, was 
'almost led to forsake their religion, its language was simplified, culminating in 

the loss of their horse, costume, jewelry, and customs which had been gained 
I through a thousand years'work. Nothing happens in this universe without a 

reason; whether it is a natural or manmade disaster which afflicts a nation, there 
[is always a reason for it. 

I Let's leave each T rkmen to think about this question and face this problem in 
his soul and answer it before God. 

By the order of Allah the Most Exalted, as the shadow of the third millennium 
fell on to us, in 1991, T rkmenistan became an independent state. However, at 
the outset, this was only on paper. The developing society, state institutions, 
thinking on national independence, sustainable economy and international affairs 
shaped by national interest were namely taking shape. The most challenging 
^aspect of this business is to connect individual fate with independence and to 


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Our Respected Leader Saparmyriit Turkmenba^y Ihe 
Great's copy of the scripts of Ruhnania. 

low our national interest is attached to the independence. The most challenging 

aspect of this business is that views, reasoning and mental independence are not 
up to the level of understanding the national benefit and interests that come about 
as a result of them. 

If you do not have a national state organization, a national policy, a national ideal 
which will enthuse and mobilize people, a national economy, a national 
civilization, a national army, then your condition cannot be described as full 
independence. We need time for this. We need at least 10-20 years. 

^irst, people's perception and spirit should change. Each T rkmen is responsible 
ffor the nation's fate, national state, society, its indivisible unity, and unification. 
Each T rkmen should know what kind of path their nation followed in the past, 
should be able to compare it with their current era and know their future. The 
general interest of the T rkmen nation depends on each individual T rkmen. 

I Allah the Almighty gave us limitless land and water. He gave us underground 
resources. He created our nation intelligent and able to judge their own conduct. 
In addition, he gave us an independent T rkmen state. 

I T rkmen keep your morale high and keep good work, prosper and make others 
I and your country prosper. Those who will make the T rkmens attain the true 
level and status of the T rkmen and work for T rkmenistan will be the 
' T rkmens themselves. 

My dear T rkmen nation, in order to urge your soul and mind to fuUfill these 
I duties and to raise a strong faith in your heart for self-confidence, and to be a 
[support to you, I have written this book, Ruhnama, for you. I dedicate and present 

khe book I have written to you today. 


My Dear T rkmen Nation ! 

You are the meaning of my life and source of my strength. I wish you a healthy 
and long life. Our T rkmen an(!estors were courageous people and they began to 
educate their children before they came to life. The T rkmen child reached 
maturity and bravery, and then has a national education and worldview. For that 
[reason, bodily health, intellectual stability, and integrity, and good manners were 
^he special characteristics of the T rkmen. 

In our times, the T rkmen should take care in his eating and drinking to preserve 
his health and endurance. He should not eat greedily. In order to keep his health, 
strength and productivity, the T rkmen should remember Allah Almighty's 
order: "Eat and drink but do not waste," and behave according to this order. 

The real T rkmen should be careful about the clothes he wears and the way he 
dresses should be reasonable. His appearance should be pleasing since Allah is 
I beautiful and the T rkmen should be appropriate for His love. 

The T rkmens before us continued to read and learn new sciences even though 
they had reached the highest levels in the sciences. They lived with the 
! accumulated knowledge that had passed from generation to generation and 
[ passed it on to the current generation. They thought that the leaming of the 
sciences would end if they made any break in this endeavour. 

I Today's T rkmens, you will be seen as scientists if you keep reading. If you lose 
your leaming, then you will become illiterates. Every citizen of T rkmenistan 
.should have a knowledge of science. This would be the result of brave 


I souls, poetic perceptions, sensitive heart, and spiritual richness. To read and to 
learn is to have a deeper knowledge of life. When one reads, new ideas and 

' anxieties emerge in the mind. Thus, to read and to learn is to appreciate Allah 
Amighty. Intellectuals and scientists have special place in my world and I show 

I them great respect. 

[The T rkmen man should lead his family efficiently and direct them to 

I Intellectual and wise, the T rkmen father should set a good example to educate 
his children; he should approach his children with love and should choose for 
them and offer them modesty, happiness, and compassion; he should treat them 
equally and justly. The T rkmen child should not commit illegitimate acts, and 
should be both physically and spiritually healthy. Thus, a T rkmen child should 
have a sense of humor, and be generous and loyal to his/her parents and the 
country, in addition to having a sense of responsibility. After all these, the 
parents' duties to their children are as follows: first, they should ensure they gain 
knowledge of a valid science, then help them to have a home and, third, help 
them to marry. The T rkmen man should be on his own after these aids. We take 

' these three responsibilities seriously in T rkmen territory. In each subject and 
area, our road be bright. 

Iln societal relations, the ethical values advised in the Quran and their strength 
will improve the T rkmens'characteristics and make them more powerful in this 
Golden Age of T rkmens. T rkmens will be civilized, clean, attractive, and 
useful individuals. 

T rkmens, without distinction, should not deceive, should not lie, should be 
I honest, and should not be jealous. Good morals and honesty are the 
characteristics which suit ^^^^^^^ 


^the T rkmen best. The T rkmens who have these quahties should be the 
:itizens of the 21st century. May Allah give us strength and patience on this road. 

The never ending spiritual source for a true T rkmen, who continously ponders 
on his spiritual world, who really worries about his well-being, who is self- 
:onscoius, alert and careful about enhancing his intellectual, physical and 

' spiritual capacites, should be the Ruhnama, which never lets his exuburant, 
sensitive, poetic and sublime heart, and longingfor spirit, deeply felt enthusiasm 

1 and inner feelings, extinguish. 

[Fate gave me the role of being leader of T rkmenistan at the juncture of the 
I second and third millennia. The burden of the responsibility of taking my people 
I from the last years of the second millennium, in which things did not go well, to 
the summits of the third millenium fell onto my shoulders. 

[ This position and responsibility, which have been given to me without my asking, 
I have motivated me to call up my spiritual, intellectual and physical strength that 
[Allah granted me with and use them as a societal force to achieve progress in my 
:ountry. I understand that it is necessary to call up not only my own strength but 
also all the national spiritual strength given to the whole T rkmen nation. 
Indeed, throughout history which connects one generation to the others, there is a 
I law of individual- society relations: the power which has been generated by the 
society in one era comes to life in an individual matured in the same nation at a 
later point. This should not be put to keeping people where they are but to come 
back with a different outlook and raise them to the summits. I dedicate Ruhnama, 
my desired and expected book, to my people. Although the demand for a book 
■ such 


as this has come from our generation, this is not a problem which has only 
I surfaced in recent history. The T rkmen generations before us, even though they 
did not make such demands explicitly, felt the necessity of spiritual principles 
which will not lead our generation to divide and disappear. Each individual 
I comes to the fore with the symbols that constitute its core: the commander holds 
a weapon, the poet holds a pen, the doctor holds a remedy. The President, as 
historical character, writes his guidelines and come to the fore with these. 

My main guideline is Ruhnama. As a systematic worldview, Ruhnama is the core 
of all my political, economic and life targets, with civil content and methods of 
se in different areas of society. 

^Before beginning to talk about the different aspects of the historical necessity in 

this book, I would like to draw attention to a characteristic of Ruhnama, which 
shows that it is one another within life, which is a part of life, integral but not 
exclusive. The greatest miracle of Allah in the world, the human being, has 
passed through dark periods, natural disasters and societal fightings, many 

I difficult times. The knowledge and conscious life of the human being begins with 

' the book, namely when human being understood the word and considered it 
sacred. These miraculous books have been given to the Prophets Moses, David, 

' Jesus Christ and Muhammad, peace be upon them all. The Messenger of Allah, 
our Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, endorsed the fact that the four 

I sacred books, including the Quran, were given to the Prophets by Allah, and thus 

I word has gained a highest, exalted, rank. 

[_The Word is the most sacred gift that God gave to human beings. 


[The Word is the fruit of people, but it is given to human beings by God. 

^ith the coming of the sacred books, the era in which human beings worshipped 
evil forces was ended. The era in which the wisdom of the word has been 
I appreciated began immediately afterwards. These eras became the two most 
significant eras. 

Allah, the Almighty, the Omnipotent, in the Quran that He sent to Prophet 
Muhammad, said that Noah, Moses, Christ and Muhammad are elevated spirits. 

i The T rkmens' Ruhnama is not a -religious book. The Quran, the book of Allah, 
the Most Exalted, is the first and the most important and the reference book of the 
T rkmens among other Muslims that guides people to put their life into order. 
God's book, the Quran, is sacred and cannot be replaced or compared to any other 

J book. 

' We also believe in the books mentioned in the Quran. About the Old Testament 
that was sent to Moses, Allah said in the Quran: "We really sent the Old 

' Testamant and therein are good ways to take as examples and Allah's light." The 
Gospel is the book sent to the Prophet Christ. 
Allah who created miracles ordered that: 

"After the prophets we sent Christ, son of Maryam, and with him it has been 
I endorsed that previously sent Old Testament is real. In addition we gave him the 
Gospel and with this book gave the shining light that approves what is said in the 
Old Testament and the right path." 


Allah the Merciful gave the book Zebur (Psalms) to the Prophet David. 

Allah the Merciful said: "We gave Zebur to David." 

Apart from all these, we believe that Allah sent suhuf (scriptures, pages) to other 

Drophets. If something should be said about believing in the Quran, obeying the 

)uran has been ordered in it and it has been placed above comparison to others 

Fsince it has privileges, given by Allah, that are absent in others. That is why we 

show extra respect to the Quran. We obey the Quran and the Quran is a sacred 


[Ruhnama should be a source of power and striving to reach the targets of 
T rkmen's Golden Age. The real T rkmen cannot treat himself badly and does 
not forget who he is and his real duties towards his own people. The T rkmen's 
outlook cannot be separated from his inner life. Indeed, the T rkmen should be 
able to keep the delicate balance between the material judgement of his body and 
his spirit. 

Ruhnama should be a source of power that will keep hearts alert, of intellect, and 
suitable spirit, and the poetic soul of those real T rkmens who are concerned 
I with their own spiritual world and also their spiritual and physical development. 

^Ruhnama is the book of unity and togetherness. It is the only source that will 
:onnect T rkmen's present and its past. Up until now, there were a number of 
/ords, special words, but not a whole word. Ruhnama should fill this gap. 

PRuhnama should place in the hands of T rkmens their unique and whole history, 
and spiritual striving. My philosophy is unity and togetherness. For in the 
absence of unity and togetherness, there is no nation. If it happens by accident, it 
does not last long. Spiritual multiplicity, different mental per- 

spectives, and different voices of the soul have been built upon this unity. The 
unity and togetherness inside becomes the pillars that keeps the nation together. 

No other nation in the world was divided into so many tribes as the T rkmens. 
The real unity of T rkmen is blood and language unity. 

Unity provides the nation with the means to construct its future. Without unity, it 
^is not possible to understand the T rkmens'past. T rkmenistan is one of these 
lations which has the richest history. There have been so many books written on 
different periods of T rkmen history, but a surprising situation emerges when 
one considers the huge number of books: it is not possible to find T rkmens 
alone in these books. It is also surprising that in the works of historians, and other 
, intellectuals, the bits and pieces of T rkmen history are very different and 
I sometimes controversial. If you believe in one of these, T rkmens are nomadic 
or semi-nomadic peoples and according to another they are a pastoral people and 
dealwith farming. According to another, they are urban people and live in castles 

and established some major civilizations. Yet another says from a political view 
point hardworking, another says humble, even lazy. 

^Where does this controversy and confusion come from? No one was able to see 
the T rkmen nation as a whole since it is a very great nation. This historical 

^confusion reminds us of a short story by our great poet Jalaleddin Rumi: A group 
of blind men wonder how an elephant is. Those who feel the elephant's legs 
decide that it is a hard column, those who feel its trunk think that it is a weak tree. 

I Likewise each writer saw T rkmen according to his own view and perceptions. 
From such a perspective, it is not possible to see the reality; only 

semi-reality can be seen. It is obvious that semi-reality is worse than a lie. 
Individuality is the biggest trap of our era's way of thinking. 

For that reason, anew spiritual approach is required to encompass the whole 
I T rkmen nation and history. Of course such an attempt may not include all 
I historical details. That is the duty of historians. As I said before, we need a 
I measure to decide on unity inside. The spiritual analyses and descriptions of the 
content of the unrepeatable amount of the coincidences, similarities and 
differences of the history are needed. In this discourse, unifying and generalizing 
I philosophies play a role. 

Ruhnama is the veil of the T rkmen people's face and soul. It is the T rkmen's 
, first and basic reference book. It is the total of the T rkmen mind, customs and 
I traditions, intentions, doings and ideals. It will be our legacy to the future after 
drawing lessons from the past! One part of Ruhnama is our past that the existing 
knowledge at present could not enlighten and the other part is our future! One 
I part of Ruhnama is sky, the other part is earth. 

We wrote the first pages of Ruhnama during the first ten years of our independent 
and permanently neutral T rkmenistan, while we improved our working places, 
[established the infrastructure and changed our life. 

[In those ten years of T rkmenistan's independence and permanent neutrality we 
I wrote the Ruhnama for the soul and mind of T rkmens with enlightening words 
[ and with hope. 

Where does the greatness of human beings come from? The greatness of the 
human being begins with his discovery of his own, that is, with his discovery of 
i his inner world. It is 

^asy to know or measure others, but the real difficulty is to know oneself! For 

that reason our wise ancestors said: "Those who know themselves become the 

I Dear T rkmen! 

[Be your own ruler. If you succeed in managing yourself, then you can overcome 
all difficulties. 

My Citizens ! The T rkmen of today and tomorrow should know himself. He 
should know his weakness and his strength, through and through! The doctor who 
I knows the problem can easily solve it. The people who can judge their problems 
can avoid the problems! Ruhnama is the T rkmen's book about himself. 

Ruhnama is not only our book! Ruhnama is also the book of our brothers and 
other nations that rejoice at our happiness and are proud of our successes and 
with whom we are together creating our Golden Age in these lands. 

Ruhnama is also the book of our near and far brothers and neighbours. You 
I become friends after you get to know someone. The foreigners who read 

Ruhnama will know us better, became our friends faster, and the far and the 
[foreign becomes closer to us on our path to being accepted in the world. 

[ T rkmenistan which has been the centre of many great transformations and a 
centre of development and progress, had a very special place in the history and 
expansion of Islam into the world. T rkmen people have made unlimited 

1 contributions to the world. 

If one wished to create a flag of beauty and perfection, then this flag would be a 
I T rkmen carpet. 

If one wants to create a model of endurance, beauty and 


purity, then one should take the Ahalteke horse as an example. 
Dear Citizens! 

In a short time, we have established our excellent stable state and taken the first 
I step in our progress. The second step lies in our mind, heart and blood. We shall 
establish this great transformation with this book entitled Ruhnama. 

We have sacred territories that will open the eyes of those who became blind 
I from weeping for their lost lands. We have wonderful songs that open deaf ears. 
|We have beautiful smelling springs that make silence burst into song. We are the 

owners of these beautiful lands. 

Without looking to the opportunities and sources at their hands, T rkmens did 
not hesitate to go to war, and fighting head-to-head, they won or lost their battles. 

I If this territory falls into danger, we have courageous young men who put their 
lives into danger, like G rogly, to fight! We have old people like Gorkut Ata 
who will advise on keeping unity among people. We have diamond-standard, 

' wise people like Magtymguly. In such a country and with people like these, can 
we not turn the 21st century into the Golden Age of the T rkmen? It would be a 
shame if we could not change this territory into a heaven and establish a 
wonderful golden society when we have our people who devote their love, effort 

land sincerity to the task. 

Allah the Almighty created us as humans, we came into this world as humans, 
and it is our duty to make of our people a noble and trustworthy people, to 
establish an era of well-being and found a good society. 

My Dear People 

If eel proud of my T rkmen territory and T rkmen land. This sacred land 
inspires my heart like a poet's. 


^^j^,^ ^>^.^t^^?iSty-£.^^ d^^^J^^^Z^, ^/i^..iLJJ^t<'.JU.<fc - 





Our Respected Leader Saparniyrat Tuikmenba^y the 
Great's copy of the scripts of Rnhnuma. 

This land is T rkmen territory in which Hydyr walks in beautiful deserts, Kowus 
walks in shadowy mountains, Kysas walks on the shrinking shore of the sea. 

I T rkmens seek refuge in its territory, so like a laden table. This territory is called 
T rkmen land which has been made of pearls, diamonds and gold! Its soil is its 
treasury, its subterranean resources are its treasury, its mountains and its sea are 
its treasury. We produce crops in this land in all seasons. They are harvested, 

[their seeds multiplied by thousands and returned back to the soil. 

This T rkmenistan is trustworthy like the T rkmen's promise, high-ranking in 
I honor, sacred like the T rkmen's home, miraculous like the T rkmen's belief. 

In the blue sky of this land white geese and cranes prepare for wedding days, 
I beautiful springs and summers come from the sky of this magical land, and 
clouds with rains and thunderbolts make the T rkmen homeland very green and 

The happiness of the T rkmen Spring cannot fit into a T rkmen's soul and the 
I land and sky tell its story, the roses bloom from the stones. 

[We say welcome and open our arms to those who come to these lands. World 
travellers, our gate and soul are open. Come and visit us! Come and travel in the 

' lands of Oguz Han, Gorkut Ata, Seljuk Han, Alp Arslan, Mehksah, Soltan Saniar, 
Gbrogly and Magtymguli. 

[My fellow countrymen, though you are not travellers, you visit this territory, 
touch the soil on which many valued people, rulers and your ancestors lived. 


[ This land is a sacred and miraculous land. 

Ruhnama is a visit to this land. Ruhnama is a visit to the past of this territory and 
a visit to the future of this territory. Ruhnama is the visit made to the heart of the 
I Tlirkmen. Ruhnama is a sweet spiritual fruit grown in this territory. 

I No human being who has not experienced what I lived through can understand 

Your father who is supposed to support you in hard times is dead in an unknown, 
foreign place! 

^our dear mother is lying with your two sisters under Karakum. You are alone in 
[ Leningrad. You have no one behind you who is asking about you and writing 
' letter to you. 

Iwas sick and asked my supposedly close relatives to take care of me. They wrote 
to tell me that they had forgotten about me, let alone helping me. 

There was no one other than The One, Allah Almighty, to seek refuge in and no 
one to ask for help other than my Allah. The whole country was crying that there 
isnoAUah. Oh, Allah! 

lused to remember G rogly at that time. His enemies took his head and went 
I away. They did it in order to prevent the T rkmens from ever uniting again 
under a leader. But Jygalybeg is alive. There is no place in the whole story that 
■ says that Jygalybeg died. Perhaps Jygalybeg has been waiting until now for a 
courageous young T rkmen to come to life. We need courageous, lion-like, 
I tough young men to take care of enslaved T rkmens. We need G rogly Beg. 

Itried to express my feelings, which I could not supress in myself, which became 
knot on knots on my throat, which 

brought me almost to the edge of frenzy, maddness, in the following poem: I 

I Jygalybeg 

Ihave powerful T rkmen thoroughbred, would you groom it Jygalybeg ? I 

I Ihave also a broken and uneased heart, would you groom it, Jygalybeg ? I 

My bowers are shackled, my Qandybil is a grieved country now, I 

^And our ill-fortune never awakens, unless you, unless you..., Jygalybeg! I 

Ihtrt are the mountain-like variants who rose against the black mountain? I 

I Alas, sorrowing are the stately variants that fought against the bad lot ! I 

"Many heroic and wise fell martyred, so that I was left behind lonely, abandoned, I 

Even the dessert bent double with pain, moaning. Can you hear, Jygalybeg ? I 
The prosperous wealthy men were collected, suffered, and sent to exile in Siberia, 

The lion-hearted brave fell as martyr in the fight and already became graves, I 

Your orphan cried bitterly, left all alone, no strength, patience, endurance, I 

lAU my land weep and my folk bewailed, the country in disorder, Jygalybeg I 


1 Ihave powerful T rkmen thoroughbred, would you groom it Jygalybeg ? 

"ihave also a broken and uneased, heart, would you groom it, Jygalybeg ? 

^nd me G rogly's curved sword and your spear to me, Jygalybeg ! 

[No fear! I shall fight to death. Give me your own crown, Jygalybeg I 

Attractive surroundings and a good view are wonderful but if there is someone 
I who understands you, then home is better. Heaven-like places are good and 
pleasant but your own homeland, your fatherland is more appealing and 
' attractive. Run away from that who opens his door but shuts his heart to you. 
I However, forgive that who opens his heart but shut the door to his home because 
[he might have some excuses. 

Iwas bom on 19 February 1940 in Asgabat. My dear father went to fight in the 
Second World War. He struggled against the fascist invaders in Caucasia. 

After fighting for two years, in 1943, seven T rkmen, including my father, in a 
Russian troop were captured by enemy forces at a village, called Thcikola, Viladi 
Kafkaz of the capital city of the Northern Osetia. I leamt the tragic fate of the 
hostages after 18 years by chance. Then I was a second year student at the 
Polytechnic Institute in Leningrad. All the students went home during summer 
I time. Dormitories and classes would remain empty for some time. I was missing 
1 my motherland, language and T rkmen song since I had not been to 
T rkmenistan for the last two years. I also missed my school friends and other 
friends. If you do 


I not have parents and relatives, then there is no one watching over you, and caring 
for your health, sentiments and wishes. The false concern of some people does 

' not convince an orphan. You have to make your own decisions and decide on 
critical situations regarding your fate. Your only friends are your ideals and your 

I spiritual world. 

Ihave thanked God a hundred thousand times since I was five years old that I 
inherited honor, nobility, patience, highness of spirit and objectives-ideals from 
my parents in my body and soul. My character has not been weakened through 
times of both success and failure but rather strengthened. This become a fountain 
that will never dry up for my T rkmen people, my sacred land, my motherland, 
for the past and present, for its future generations, which started as a spring but 
Lturned into a river. 

When I was studying at the university, I used to go to the hbrary. I read not only 
books about my lessons, I found rare books about T rkmen history and read 
I them patiently. 

rOnce I was reading a book in the library. An old Russian, wearing glasses, stared 
! at me from both my left and my right. 

Mid not pay attention and thought that he was confusing me with someone. But 
he came near to me and looked again. I am usually a calm person but his stare 
disturbed me. 

"Father are you confusing me with someone else?" I asked politely. 

"I thought you resembled someone, my son. However my eyes are not good 

I Iwas looking at this old person and even though I do not forget anyone even if I 
: have only seen them once, I could not 

remember having seen him before. I leamt much about this man on a train 
I journey later. 

The old man said: "If I am mistaken, my heart will break. If I am not mistaken, 
' then my heart will also break. May God help me!" He tried to calm down and 
raised his right hand: 

"Whoever you are , you must be the son of Atamyrat Annany'az." 

Ifelt like a bucket of hot water had been thrown over me. I felt waves run inside 
me on hearing my father's name from a stranger. 

Then we introduced ourselves and talked. This professor, Iwan Semyonowic, had 
been my father's friend during the war and they had fought shoulder to shoulder 
against the enemy forces and even shared their last food when they were at the 
front. We talked a lot about the problems and the tragedies of that period and the 

He said that he had written two letters to Asgabat and asked for information after 
j my father's death. In response to the letters, he had received the reply that 

Atamyrat Annanyyaz's wife and children had died during an earthquake. He was 
I surprised and delighted to see me alive. 

y"Your father was tall with high cheekbones. Your appearance and movements are 

like Atamyrat's. When the fighting was not heavy, we used to gather around your 
father when he sang. He was able to play all instruments and was a very good 
conversationalist, and when he danced he was the master of the dance. He 

I astonished the Caucasians. 

"My Dear Saparmyrat, your father was like a bullet fired 


from a rifle. He was sometimes braver than necessary. When I said to him 
'Atamyrat you have children, so take care of yourself," he used to answer, "And if 

I I save myself, who will save my children?'He fought like a lion." 

The old man also told the whole story about the tragic end of the troops that were 
:aptured by the enemy forces during the war. 

I We had to surrender. We did not decide on this but our commanders ordered us 
to do so. In the war this kind of situation occurred. This was not the fault of the 
soldiers. Even though this was so, it is still not possible to describe your father as 
a prisoner of war. He was immediately shot as a communist. He did not lose even 

I the smallest part of his courage. Betrayed by his countrymen he went his death, 
like Christ sold to his enemies by Judas. 

Your father was a hero, a real hero. I wrote a piece about his courage. I am not a 
^writer but I could not prevent myself from doing this. I wrote it since I wanted to 
tell my friend's story to the world. Since I felt obliged to do this, I sent it to a 
friend of mine in the Moscow cinema for his consideration. He liked it and said at 
^the last moment: 

"We should make the hero a Georgian because if we do not do this, no one will 
know who this T rkmen is." 

Iwan Semyonovic took a breath. He cleaned his glasses and continued: 

"I understand them... It was the Stalin era. But I refused the change of hero and 

withdrew my script. Dear Saparmyrat, my son, your father was a real hero, learn 

I about his fate in war and his heroism." 
My fellow citizens, there are so many people who have 

held these high spiritual values since T rkmen people entered the historical 
arena. I am only one among those, since these sentiments are widespread among 

|T rkmen people, and the T rkmen nation is stable and lasting. 

In 1963, 1 missed my homeland and went to T rkmenistan via Moscow. At that 
time, I met with another person who had known my father closely. My fate gave 
me a surprise, and I met a friend of my father's from the military after 18 years. 

It happened like this. At that time, the Asgabat-Moscow train would wait for 
I some time at each station. 

I There are some people who do not like train travel. However, it is a particular 
Ipleasure to enter the world of ideas and to get to know new places. 

I The conductor on the train was sary Aga, who was from Yalkym village near 
I Asgabat. He was a courageous and hard working T rkmen and we met on our 
\ way to T rkmenistan. 

luman beings are different from each other. Some people you feel close to, you 
L want to meet and know them better. Sometimes you see a person and decide to 
Istay away from that person. I leamt something certain about T rkmen people in 
my early chilhood, that T rkmens like to be asked questions. Gary Aga was a 
' curious man: 

"My nephew, some people feel uneasy if you ask a few questions. They say, 
'Who are you, a prosecutor or a judge?' Our T rkmen said that humans know 
each other through speech, animals recognize each other through smell. We had a 
very big village but it disappeared during eras of the civil war and the Bolsheviks. 
When repression increased, many people fled to other places. If you ask carefully 
theT rkmen 


population was fairly small, and each and every one always knew one the other, a 
fact which is well-known. 

Ileamt that Qary Aga had known both my father and grandfather. 

I "Dear Saparmyrat, you should only be surprised if you meet someone who did 
' not know your grandfather, Annany'az Artygy. There was no one who did not 
I know Annany@az Artygy in Gypjak, G6kje, Bagyr, Herrikgala, Yalkym and 
I Biizme@in. Annany@az Artygy was an able man who used to invite others to eat 

at his table. They sent your grandfather into exile in 1932 since he had a private 

place and shop and had workers working on a salary. 

The reason that I know these facts in detail is that my 

mother and uncle were neighbours of Annanyyaz Aga. "Qary Aga, did you meet 
my grandfather?" He smiled with pleasure. 

"We had so much in common. I met him in many different places, village, 
I markets, town center, you name it. Once I took two bags of barley and went to 
the city. I was very young. At that time, on Sundays, the city was very crowded 
and it wasn't possible to find a place for donkeys, horses, camels and vehicles. At 
that time we did not have vehicles that we have now and there were a limited 
Lnumber of T rkmen in the city. 

Iwas walking with my bags and there was a poor man in front of me riding on a 
donkey. The idle young people of the city were hitting him with sticks and he 
was close to falling off. The poor man was not sure what to do and was shouting 

I and cursing at the kids. Their parents were on both sides of the road and were 

' watching heedlessly the kids' 

f attacks. A man wearing a special black T rkmen hat (silkme telpek) came 

f rapidly and ran into the street. He began to whip the people standing heedlessly 

around and these people ran away because of the sharp lash of the whip. Then an 

old man said to the crowd: 

--You struck the right people, T rkmen, you struck true. If a child does 
something wrong, then his parents are guilty. 

-Yes, Dear Saparrnyrat, I remember when your grandfather Annany@az Artygy 
I became chief of the village for the second time. When my father heard this he 
! said: 

The people of Kipqak did not do the right thing; the government did not arrest 
I people like Annany@az A-rtygy since they are rich! The goverment is afraid of 
j T rkmens like Annany@az Artygy. 

I Fate brought him a bad day in August 1937 when he was accused of committing 
a crime. He was declared an enemy of the people and sent to death row in prison. 
Your grandfather knew that such an end would come. But he did not refuse the 
ordinary people's demand. 

Dear Saparmyrat, when your father entered the city both young and old would 
I look at him. He rode his horse with pride. He was very good looking and created 
I a very good impression. He was like a beg or han. He always looked for the 

goodness in others but these kind of people were annihilated in the Stalin era." 

^(;ary Aga walked around for a while and directed a train out of the station. He 
came back to my side. 

"Our relations were good with your father. He was three or four years older than 
I me. I was living in Yalkym near A gabat and used to visit my uncle frequently. 
I They sent 


'your grandfather into exile in 1932. If they would send even your 53 year-old 
grandfather into exile, no one could feel safe. His friends advised your father 

Atamyrat to move to another area. He moved to Kerki city in this way, where he 
worked as a teacher. Later he hved in the village of G6kdepe from 1935-36. In 
1937, he bought a house in A gabat and settled there and began to work there. 
At that time we were really close friends. Saparmyrat, I remember your father's 
face; he was always a pleasant, attractive, forward-thinking, patient and fine- 
I manly person." 

[ Idid not led him go on but asked: "When is the last time you saw my father?" 

From 1941 onwards we fought against the German invaders in the same troop. 
Another day I will tell you how we saved our country. There is no such thing as a 

I sweet war and, indeed, in this bloody war, there were times we won and times we 
were defeated. In 1943, near to Wiladikavkaz in North Ossetia after an intense 
battle, we were taken prisoner by the enemy. The Germans were trying to control 
the situation and shouting to each other while holding the automatic weapons. 

I Russian soldiers were collected in one place after throwing away their weapons. 
There were five of us from T rkmenistan, four T rkmen and a Russian. At that 
time, a friend of ours, took out a piece of tobacco and wrapped it with old 
newspaper. We were taking it in turns to smoke it. When the cigarette came to 

I Atamyrat, there was a Russian on his right, and a T rkmen friend said Atamyrat 

I do not give it to the Russian. The Germans are going to kill us now. Give it to me 
and I will have a smoke before dying.' 

I 'No, friend, this friend also fought with us and put his life in danger to save the 
country. He should smoke when his 


turn comes. There is God and we should not lose our hope even to our last 

I Then a German began announcing something over a loudspeaker and another 
translated into Russian, 'Line up" and over a hundred captured soldiers lined up. 
I Then they announced: 

""Any communists present, step forward". 

In front of the line, there were German soldiers with automatic weapons at every 
ten paces. All of a sudden I was startled when a T rkmen near to me said: 'Can't 
we push forward that Atamyrat who gave the cigarette to communist?' (implying 
that you prefer giving cigarette to a Russian rather than to us so you are also like 
I him, a communist then, so you should step forward) 

They grumbled: 'Now do you understand who you should have given that 
' cigarette to?'A German soldier who had heard and seen this event came running 
Lup and then they took away Atamyrat by poking him with their guns, fifteen 

paces away to the edge of a hollow. Then, having gathered several more men, in 
front of our eyes, they executed them by shooting them by a machine gun and 
threw the dead in the hollow." 

I Qary Aga added, 'May Allah full their graves with Divine Light' and wiped his 
eyes with a handkerchief taken from his pocket. He looked at me quietly. No, he 
made no mistake; there was no tear in my eyes. He did not see my sadness. He 
guessed that I had not believed what he had said. 'My son, at that time Hitler 
ordered that whenever the German soldiers took a communist captive from 
among the Soviet soldiers then they were to execute them there and 


then. There was pen-nission for the exchange of other captives for German 
captives. 1, like all the others, benefited from the exchange of prisoners and I 
returned rightly to my homeland," he said and again stared at my face. 

"(;ary Aga, thank you very much for what you have said. These are matters of 
fate," I said and I stared out of the window of the train. Through the window it 
looked as if grey sand was flowing past. The train passed T rkmenabat and went 
I on towards the Repetek Desert. It was as if my dear father, straight and brave, 
I was visible in front of my eyes in his last appearance to me. Moreover, his pure 
thoughts: "No, I do not die. I have three young sons and their beloved mother, my 
j Gurbansoltan, living in my homeland and they are my descendants." His words 
were in my ears. 

lam pleased with the fact that neither my grandfather nor father left any 
inheritance to me. In fact they left me instead something as valuable as a great 
inheritance. Everybody who knew my father and grandfather praised them: "Your 
father was a very great man." Like this, they extolled and glorified them and 
these expressions filled my heart with joy. What greater wealth can there be than 
' that? 

I Many years later on, I wondered what had happened to the men who had shared 
[the cigarette. They had been freed in an exchange of prisoners and the three of 
'them had returned to their villages. But, they encountered many troubles in their 
fate. Two of them were from the villages in the area around A gabat. In the 
1950's, the first one had a stroke, lost his mind and tongue and died. The second 
one committed suicide by hanging himself at home. The third was from the 
village of G6kdepe. After the war he had committed suicide by throwing himself 
on the railway. 

Iq sometimes say that there is no need for you to settle your accounts in this 
^world. Whatever you have done, the world will settle your account for you. 

War, look at it! Such horror! The 20th Century has been a bloody and brutal 
century in which mankind, in his lifespan burdened with disasters, has rendered 
many losses and sacrificed many lives. There have been two World Wars, and 

I tens of border wars and inter-state wars have occurred. Our T rkmen citizens 
have participated in those wars too. Sometimes it was against their will and 

! sometimes voluntarily. In the Second World War alone, 740,000 T rkmens died 
at the hands of the German invaders. Tens of thousands of men were injured and 
maimed. To measure the loss of our citizens materially and financially is 

[impossible. We have given the name of the hero of the T rkmen state to all the 
martyrs in this war. May their place be in the heavens and their graves fulled with 
divine light! 

The war ended, the veterans returned to their homeland and it was as if a bright 
' light had been ignited in the hearts of the people. But, it was not to last. God once 
j more tested the T rkmen province. On the night of 6th October 1948 A gabat 
was devastated by an earthquake which left our beautiful city in ruins. In one 
night, out of a population of 198,000 people in our capital city, 176,000 were 
martyred, the majority of the rest were injured or disabled. Our family also 
suffered in that disaster. When we went to our beds, there were four of us. My 
dear 33 year-old mother, my 10 year-old elder brother Nyy'azmyrat, and my 6 
year-old younger brother Muhammetmyrat all were martyred that night. The next 
day, when I broke down and wept over the 

1 3 because those who are killed in such disasters are recognized to be martyrs in 


ruined house, although I had not yet completed 8 years old, I knew I was alone. 
I In this way, I sat through 6 lonely days and nights. On the seventh day, they came 
' and carried away my dead mother and dear brothers to bury them in Ymam 

Kasym graveyard. 

those six days, I had understood that this was the end of my childhood. My 
"^ tears dried up for ever. The last time I looked upon my dear family and the places 
where they lay under the ruins, in their presence I vowed to myself silently: 

rMy Dears, your spirits and that of my dear father will live in my heart for ever. 
I They will lend me effort and power to achieve my aims and on your behalf I will 

realize your purposes and the dreams which you were not able to live out. May 

Allah help me! 

Our Ancestor Oguz Han is the forefather of the T rkmen people, whom 
I T rkmen people assume to be a prophet. From the ancient civilized heritage of 
IT rkmen soil and from the Oguz Han era. Golden Cow sculptures and many 

other valuable relics have been found. 

You cannot convince T rkmen people that Gorkut Ata is a man without saintly 
I miracles (karamat) ! 

Ft rkmens in history founded the great Parfi@a State. ,&rsak @ah established 
relations with the Romans. During his era he was known as The Holy &rsak 
@ah. In the history of the T rkmens, there have been many men who have been 

I believed to be like prophets and described as godly, holy. We have never tried to 
force other people to believe that these are men who have prophecy, however, we 
do believe that those were not ordinary people but worked saintly miracles (kara- 


rnat), which we do not let others abuse our beliefs, either. 

D6vletmdmmet Azady said: "The richest of all richnesses is sagacity, the most 
precious heritage is breeding and training, the most beggarly of the beggarly is 
! regret." For us, the heritages derived from our ancestors, Oguz Han, Oguzs, 
Persians, Seljuks and Harzem@ahs are unsurpassable honours and priceless 

I The beauty, fineness, of the human being lies in the truthfulness of his words. 

[Unfortunately, it was not really that 

Isome sections of the Tilirkmen society were corrupted and 
derailed. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, because of internal conflicts 
within the T rkmen nation, it ceased to prosper. The principalities and the 
Hanates could not agree and made great wars among themselves, a prelude to the 
perishing of the T rkmen themselves. The esteem, power, strength and spiritual 
credit of T rkmen was in decline. 

Brave T rkmen! In this world, in the history of humanity there is nothing true 
and eternal except our Exalted, Eternal, Allah. Within the Seljuk State, after the 
14th Century, because of the central state, we began to be divided into kingdoms, 
I Hanates and principalities. The T rkmen dynasties of Akgoyunly (Whitesheep) 
I and Garagoy'unly (Blacksheep) had started to fight among themselves. 

^fter the 17th century, following the Russian expansion around the Caspian Sea, 
' and the establishment of relations between Russia and Persia, the T rkmens 
were excluded, their settlements decreased. History witnesses that external forces 
settled and regulated the tribal conflicts of T rkmen people, and their territorial 
and water disputes with neighbouring countries. Between 1879 and 188 1, the 
I T rkmen nation's economic, political, and social life was destroyed by 


"the harsh impact of the G6kdepe Wars. For this reason the Russian state was able 
to estabhsh a pro-Russian puppet authority that expanded its cultural and 
religious propaganda in T rkmen lands. 

This is not a history book. Though if we do not know the past, then the destiny of 
our future generations will lie in obscurity or darkness. In addition, their spiritual 
belief will diminish and T rkmens will lose their fundamental principles. 

I Therefore, it is necessary to be cognizant of these things. Between the 17 Ih and 
19 h centuries, some states diffused wicked propaganda in pursuit of their own 

I national interests. They falsely represented the nation of T rkmens as pillagers 
and merciless slaughterers, and described them as a wild community who kill 

I each other, living in tents, an ignorant, uneducated and nomadic nation. 

I These kinds of unjust and aberrant assertions are the political tricks which aimed 
to erode the legendary past of T rkmen people and their contribution to the 

I history of the development of the world through many centuries, to justify their 
invasion of its land and to take the T rkmen nation captive. In fact, these sorts of 
untruthful and fallacious statements severely degraded the place and the honour 

! of T rkmens in world history. For the sake of God, it is necessary to say that for 

1 74 years under Soviet rule we lived as if we accepted those opinions. Dear 
T rkmen, whoever thought differently was declared the enemy of the people. 
For this reason, hundreds of thousands of our citizens were executed, and 

I millions of them were expelled or migrated to foreign countries. 

The remaining three million T rkmen citizens, in their homeland, mislaid their 
identities by saying that we were 

ISoviet people. Not only that, they started to forget their language, religion, 
[nation, national feelings and emotions. Inciting and provoking differences and 
I conflicts between the tribes, polarization, diversity, and promotion of anarchy 
I were the basic, systematic, methodical games our enemies played against us. 

[My dear T rkmen, look back in the history take heed and also repent. Because of 
I commands and ideas of others nation should one renounce his own core, self and 
[ identity? 

I In fact, there are 24 clans and more than 40 tribes of T rkmen. 

My wish from the Great Allah is to convert the T rkmen to his essence or main 
identity! Beginning from Oguz Han, to the end of the medieval age with the 
solidarity and unity, the courage, the patriotism, the equity, the indulgency, the 
' religion, the language, the culture of the tpeople known for their great spiritual 
^belief, on into the 21 century, may you give continuity to my unique nation, my 

one and great God! Preserve and save us, Allah, so each T rkmen shall win 
1 again the ethics and customs of our ancestors who were on the true path! 

In the communist Soviet Union, which was founded at the beginning of the 20th 
I century by force, torture and blood, from 1987 on conflicts occurred between 
various parts of society. Conflicts between the different nations and injustice 
reached an unbearable level within the state, and so government and its rule 
failed, and order tended to disappear. In this historical period I felt that the 
[politico-economic position of the Soviet Union was deteriorating. On 22 August 
1990, 1 made a declaration that we would establish T rkmenistan as an 
independent, sovereign stable state having equal rights 

' and status and independence in foreign relations with other countries as all the 
i world states. 

Within the two preceding months, our relations with the Soviet Union's systems 
had almost ceased, and we saw that life necessitated further new improvements. 
It became obvious that we could not go far or progress and make our people 
happy and prosperous within that existing Soviet System with a status 
independent within its borders but dependent on the Soviet System. 

Dear T rkmens, it was the point in history that our ancestors had longed for. At 
that time, together with my colleagues, it was necessary for me to work to 
I establish an independent state by day and night without tiring, and troubles 

"were not able to deter me. On 26 October, we called a convention of the 
T rkmenistan High Council. In the convention, the historical resolution of 

I T rkmenistan, we explicitly and definitively declared the independence of the 
State of T rkmenistan. This is the content of the declaration: 

i the constitutional law on the independence of 
It rkmenistan and the structure of the state 

"On 26 October, there was a meeting of The High Council of T rkmenistan; on 
the agenda of the meeting was the people's notice of their will and wishes. 

The Council made the essential decision to put into effect the expression of the 
I independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of T rkmenistan. In this 
resolution, certain crucial issues were resolved. 

IL The State of T rkmenistan, within the borders of the 

USSR, is declared an independent, democratic state. The independence of | 

. T rkmenistan is based on great ideals - To establish the real national state of the 
I T rkmen people, to provide basic rights and freedoms complying with the 

charter of the Universal Human Rights Declarations in the Constitution of 
I T rkmenistan, as well as the other nonns of international law, to establish a I 

humanist democratic state respecting the principles of the rule of law. It does not 
I discriminate between individuals or citizens according to their nation, race, social 

origin, or their religion. 

2. The political regime of the State of T rkmenistan is a republic. In this 
republic, state sovereignty belongs to the people. The republic exercises its own 
sovereignty through the direct vote and by means of representative institutions. 

3. Inside the borders of T rkmenistan, the Constitution and Laws of 
[T rkmenistan are applicable. 

The Constitution of the Former USSR and laws are applicable only under those 
circumstances in which there is no explicit law related to the matter within the 
Constitution and Laws of T rkmenistan; and it is valid until the completion of 
I the reform and regulation of state relations and legal relations in the legislation 

14. The borders of T rkmenistan within the borders currently drawn are 
r inviolable and indivisible. 

5. The state sovereignty of T rkmenistan is executed by means of the division of 
powers into legislative, executive and judicial powers. i 

6. Complying with the Constitution of T rkmenistan, the High Council of 
I T rkmenistan exercises the legislative powers. 


I?. The highest ruler of T rkmenistan is the President who is the Head of State. ' 
The President of T rkmenistan also holds the rank of Chairman of the Executive. 

8. The courts of T rkmenistan are independent and subject to the law. 

9. Inside the borders of T rkmenistan, T rkmen citizenship applies. The I 
:onstitution and law of T rkmenistan regulates the matters pertaining to the laws 

f on obtaining citizenship of T rkmenistan and citizenship relations with other 
countries. T rkmenistan protects and assists its citizens inside and outside its 

I The constitution and laws of T rkmenistan, in accordance with interstate 
Ltreaties, recognizes the rights and freedoms of foreign citizens and stateless 

I persons in T rkmenistan as in the norms of international law. 

10. Within the borders of T rkmenistan the surface and underground resources, 
air zone, water and natural resources, sea and continental shelf are the people's 
national wealth and property, which all serve as material bases of T rkmenistan's 

On the general possessions of the USSR, there is the share of T rkmenistan in 
the USSR's diamond, foreign exchange and gold reserves. 

1 1 T rkmenistan, in its economy, establishes a functioning free market 
economy. It controls state possessions in all their forms and equally protects 

12. T rkmenistan independently determines its fiscal and monetary system; the 
state determines the structures of banks. 

1 3. T rkmenistan recognizes the independence of the 


I adjoining republics in the USSR, the definitiveness of their borders, and their 
territorial integrity and indivisibility. 

14. It is as an independent state that T rkmenistan is a member of the world 
j community, having equal rights to determine and execute its foreign policy. 

I T rkmenistan joins the United Nations Organizations and other international 
organizations as a direct member, establishes diplomatic relations, open 
embassies and other competent agencies and makes international contracts. 

15. T rkmenistan resolves independently its military policy, protect its territorial 
I integrity and independence and establish military capability. 

I T rkmenistan declares that there are no nuclear, chemical, biological, or other 
I weapons of mass destruction in the territory of T rkmenistan. 

16. T rkmenistan is concerned for the national and cultural advancement of 

' T rkmen people, the rise of national consciousness, the revival of the traditions 
of the people and is committed to the expansion of the use of the T rkmen 
language, which is the state language. 

I The Republic of T rkmenistan is the guarantor of all the living nations which 
I have the right to live and to flourish freely with their national and cultural values 
I in the territory. 

,17. T rkmenistan claims its own state signs, flag, regalia and national anthem. 

h 8. Until the admission of the new constitution of T rkmenistan, 

f T rkmenistan's USSR constitution will be applicable, so long as the previous 

i laws do not conflict with the new Constitutional law. 

19. The Independence Day of T rkmenistan is declared 


I a general national holiday; it will be celebrated on every 27 October and it will be 
a day of vacation. 

20. The formal constitutional law, when accepted, will be put into effect. 

I The arrival of this event, one more state in the world, the date of the 
establishment of the Republic of T rkmenistan has been written in golden letters 
in history. 

That date was the worthiest, most defining, and happiest moment of my life. 

That event will never be forgotten and it will always be one of the most inspiring 
and touching historical moments, and not only for me. For the destiny of the 
Republic of T rkmenistan is the delight of all its people. 

Good luck in the matters which concern you now. May the deeds you attempt be 
the best and most needed, my independent homeland of T rkmenistan! 

My Dear T rkmen People! 

On 8 December 1991, the USSR State collapsed and we had to tackle what it left 
to us without Quarrelling.. 

I After the demise of the USSR, the newly independent countries, with the help of 
international, financial institutions, settled all accounts mutually. Finally a very 
important agreement was made not to fall into land occupation and border 

' disputes between the CIS countries. In this agreement, the most important matters 
were clearly solved as below: 

The separate countries of the former USSR admitted the current borders existing 
^ from the era of the former USSR borders between the republics. 

LThe possessions established within the border of every 50 

(state in the time of the USSR were claimed by the independent states as their own 
state possessions. 

^The quantity of the wealth and the shares of the debts and credits of the 

independent states were ascertained by calculating the USSR's exchange funds 
and adding the gold in the gold reserves. 

I The credits of T rkmenistan on separation from the USSR, up to 4 December 
1991 were fixed as I billion 87 million US dollars. The debt T rkmenistan owed 
I to the USSR was 707 million US dollars. The final account was fixed such that 
I USSR owed T rkmenistan 380 miUion US dollars. 

This debt had to be paid by the Russian Federation, heir of the USSR. 

I lunderstood the fact that these were notional credits and that we would not get 

I our credits because of the tight economic borders of the Russian Federation. 

I That's why I thought that it would be better for us to separate peacefully. I put my 
idea to the first president, Boris Yeltsin, and he supported my proposal to donate 
our credits. We made a contract between the Republic of T rkmenistan and 
Russia, preparing a proposal for a treaty complying with International Law. The 

I content of the treaty is below: 

The AGREEMENT, between T rkmenistan and the Russian Federation, is to 
regulate the legal matters succeeding from the debts and credits of the fon-ner 
[USSR to foreign states. 

f T rkmenistan and the Russian Federation confirm the memorandum, dated 28 
j October 1991, on the mutual agreement regulating the debts of the USSR and its 
I legal successors to the foreign creditors and the contract, 


dated 4 December 1991, regulating the legal matters succeeding from the debts 
and credits of the USSR to foreign states, and also agree on the solutions to the 
matters relating to both sides on the legal matters succeeding from the former 
lUSSR's debts and credits as below. 

I Matter I 

[What is meant by the purpose of this agreement on the former USSR State's debts 
and credits is the interpretations which are valid in the Articles 1(a) and (b) of the 
I contract, dated 4 December 1991, concerning the legal matters succeeding from 
[the debts and credits of the USSR to foreign states. 

Matter 2 

The parties confirm that the share of debts determined for T rkmenistan is equal 
Ito 0.70%, a ratio which was fixed by one indicator in the former USSR's debts 
' and credits to the foreign states. 

Matter 3 

Because of the position of the former USSR on I December 1991, T rkmenistan 
transfers its responsibilities for payment of its share of the debt to the Russian 
Federation, and the Russian Federation accepts those responsibilities. 

Matter 4 

Because of the position of the former USSR on I December 1991, the Russian 
Federation accepts the share of T rkmenistan from the state credits. 
.T rkmenistan transfers the stated credits to the Russian Federation. 

Matter 5 

^fter this agreement comes into effect, it will be accepted that all conflicts 
between the parties related to the debts and credits of the former USSR to the 
foreign state have been 

resolved by the contract of 4th December 1991 regulating the legal matters 
I succeeding from the debts and credits of the 'b 

j USSR, in addition to the agreement of 6 July 1991 on "the share of the full 
estates of the USSR in the foreign states". 

Matter 6 

The stated contract will become effective when it is signed on 31st July 1992, in 
Moscow, in two copies in the T rkmen language and Russian language, both of 

have equal legal force. 

I T rkmenistan 

I The president 

I S.A. Niyazow 

Russian Federation 

' The president 
Boris Yeltsin 

lAfter that, T rkmens, like newly weds, had to establish their home, struggle for a 

living, regulate their life, cultivate and occupy themselves with good business. 

For thousands of years, T rkmens, in the face of extremes of cold and heat, 
I considered it very important and took great pains to train new members of the 
household properly, respecting society's values and participating in society. 

I We were a newly emerged state. Therefore, we needed everything from pins to 
I planes, medicine to computers. In the past, we produced tea in Nusay, but to 
, make tea we had to bring wood to boil the water for it from Russia, we cultivated 
:otton in Merw but sent it to Europe to be made into cloth. 

Our ancestors did not say in vain, "If your brother has much wealth, you are rich, 
I too; but if you are able to live by your own means then you are also rich." 

Jq have maintained our friendship with the former USSR, and we have not 
I aroused its enmity. 

We are very close to our former friends, and we make new friends; we have no 
I grudge against anybody, and we have no foe burning with a great passion for 
I revenge. So, when the general situation is like that, where is the logic in us 

entering and founding various political, economic, and military unions? 

I The Tfirkmens, in an historical process over thousands of years, constituted a 
great nation under the name of the T rkmen. We call ourselves T rkmen with 

' pride! What is it that gathers us in one home, collects us around one dining table, 
builds one body, and bears us quickly towards the future? Have we matured only 

I by convening around one language and religion? What are the other elements that 
make us a nation? 

' In the 20th century, humanity progressed by exploring nature and all lands; by 
researching the details of the animals and plants of the earth, by flying into space, 
I they advanced to a new and progressive age. 

"since creation, human beings have considered themselves the only thinking, 
constructing, creating beings, and the only intelligent rulers of the earth. Finally, 
I they have begun to realize that this thought was wrong. 

The human is not the only interacting, communicating and thinking living 
^creature in the world! All living things and animals are able to perform some 
I mental process or communicate in the world! All plants can interact among them- 

.the universe and the heavens! 

The human being feels he is alone. 

I This is because people, by becoming too deeply involved with material things, 

have lost their connections with the spiritual and heavenly realms. They have lost 
' their ties with embracing nature: mountains, oceans, seas, rivers, forests, deserts 

and living things. They have lost their spiritual connections with their ancestors 
I who have lain buried for thousands of years. 
I In the past, people saw God as the wind, rain, lightning, moon, sun and the sky, 

until at last they came to believe in Allah, the One and the Only! 

The T rkmens witness that Allah alone is great. The T rkmens have always 

held and defended the belief that Allah maintains all the climatic regions and 
I geographical divisions of the whole world, the universe, and every comer of life; 
[the T rkmen sees the signs of the power of His disposal in every case in the 

universe; and he often mentions and praises Him and asks for tolerance. 
I The history of the T rkmens is very glorious, too. The spirit of the T rkmens 
1 who comprehend this history will soar! 

But the history of T rkmens, has been written as they wish by everybody except 
I T rkmen historians. 

No one should show contempt for the T rkmens by writing a false history 
I because they have a great history! 

No one should defame the T rkmens by writing a false history because they 

have a very pure and clean nature! 

The story: 

When Soltan Sanjar was returning from hunting, he met a farmer working in his 
.field. Upon the signal of the Soltan, 

selves; they know how to process messages in some way conveyed to them too! 

After the ruthless attacks Jengiz Han, the T rkmens spun a circle of development 
! from East to West. T rkmenistan was the most developed country in the world. 

I The first type of carriage was devised by the T rkmen. It served to make much 
of the work of the army and the state easier. 

In early days T rkmens discovered the art of making various tools with molten 
I ores. "The epic of Ergenekon" shows the ancient of Tijrkmens. This epic 
^B mentions the melting of ores from a huge mine, which has a metaphorical 
^M meaning, that is, exploring and stretching out to the new territories and world. It 
^B conveys a perfect example of the T rkmen sword to the current era. On this 
^M sword was engraved, "The Tijrkmen never unsheathes his sword against his 

LToday, this sword is in a museum in Iran. The making of various tools and 

rmaterials made of iron and steel spread from the T rkmen plateau to the world. 

I The ancient historians wrote that the best cloth was woven in Merw and Nusay. 
1 In their books the T rkmen plateaus are well-known for silk cloth and silk 

Inventions increased day by day. 

I T rkmenistan became the home of scientists, scholars, intellectuals, 
I philosophers, artists and poets. 

So the egg has cracked and the chick has hatched; but this fledgling must now 
develop the strength of wing and the mature judgement to fly in the heights. 

Mankind, by exploring the universe, lost his belief in 


the universe and the heavens! 

The human being feels he is alone. 
I This is because people, by becoming too deeply involved with material things, 

have lost their connections with the spiritual and heavenly realms. They have lost 

their ties with embracing nature: mountains, oceans, seas, rivers, forests, deserts 

and living things. They have lost their spiritual connections with their ancestors 
1 who have lain buried for thousands of years, 
[in the past, people saw God as the wind, rain, lightning, moon, sun and the sky, 

mtil at last they came to believe in Allah, the One and the Only! 

The T rkmens witness that Allah alone is great. The T rkmens have always 

held and defended the belief that Allah maintains all the climatic regions and 
I geographical divisions of the whole world, the universe, and every comer of life; 
|the T rkmen sees the signs of the power of His disposal in every case in the 

universe; and he often mentions and praises Him and asks for tolerance. 

The history of the T rkmens is very glorious, too. The spirit of the T rkmens 
! who comprehend this history will soar! 

But the history of T rkmens, has been written as they wish by everybody except 

T rkmen historians. 

No one should show contempt for the T rkmens by writing a false history 

because they have a great history! 

No one should defame the T rkmens by writing a false history because they 

have a very pure and clean nature! 
I The story: 

I When Soltan Sanjar was returning from hunting, he met a farmer working in his 
[field. Upon the signal of the Soltan, 



^B his servants took the farmer away to a place and honoured him with various kinds 
^■of food and drink. The Soltan, after carrying him away, threw a sack in front of 
r him and said, "Take as much as you can carry away from the treasury." 



\^ en 

The farmer thought and took a very small amount of gold in his hand. When the 
Soltan asked him why he didn't take a sackful, the fanner replied, "I don't need so 
I much gold that I would carry it as a heavy burden now and after, but I need 
enough gold to help me carry out my deeds and duties efficiently." 

We have stepped into the Golden Century. We have to tackle our current duties 
I successfully for the sake of our great past and the future of the fortunate young 
' generations. We should comply with our T rkmen nature, original principles and 
historical mission. 

Tijrkmen are loyal to their promise and principles! 

The word of the older is an order (like a stately decree) for the younger 
T rkmens! It is obligatory for the older to respect their rights and esteem the 

I The way of T rkmen is the clean way. 

the war of Da-ndanakan fewer than forty T rkmen Hans defeated the army of 
Soltan Masud, the son of Soltan Mahmyt of Gazna of the strongest T rkmen 
state, not only in Asia, but in the world. They declared the new T rkmen state by 
meeting around a dining table. At this meeting was the saint in Islam, Abu Se'it 
Abyl- Ha'yr (Miine), who wore the y 

I dervish's cloak twice and who gave permission to (;agry Beg 

(ruler) and Togrul Beg (his brother) to establish a state. The Golden Throne was 
erected on the site of the battle of Da'ndanakan. However, there were some 
people who said, "There can't be a throne. Today is not a day of good omen." 

Abu Seyit said: 

"Just as there is no bad place to be found on this Earth, as all places were created 
I by Allah, so there can be no day of bad omen in the days created by Allah! Your 
state is the people's state. Rise up and as long as you do not deviate from the way 
of great Allah, and the honesty, justice and equitability of the T rkmen, then 
Lthereisno obstacle which you cannot overcome and there is no castle you cannot 


I We established the T rkmen people's state by building the throne in the 
homeland of the T rkmens, who have spread through the world. Our way is the 
way of ancient T rkmens! Our way is the way of the Oguz Han, his prophetlike 

I Our way is the way of justice. 
Our way is the way of welfare. 

Our way is the way of unity and solidarity. 
I Our way is the way of friendship and brotherhood. 
Our way is the way of free conscience. 
Our way is the way of free labour. 
Our way is the way of national integrity. 

We cannot go any other way. No T rkmen should go any other way because our 
independent state of T rkmenistan is the people's state. The way of the people is 
the way of Allah. 

My purpose in writing Ruhnama is to express explicitly how the nation has 
contributed much to the sciences, literature, civilizations, and development of the 
world and in every area of life. I describe our good fortune at the beginning of 
our history, which affected the world, but in the last seven or eight centuries our 

I nation has shrunk. She is measurably smaller but still not an insignificant nation. 
Though her name is often not recalled among the great, in fact, she is a very great 

' nation, in her mind, in her spirit, in her blood, in short, in all her entity. I want to 
show that the great legacy of our ancestors remains. The T rkmen nation has 
traced marks as magnificent as those of Great Britain, of the Great Indian Nation 
and of The Great Chinese Nation. 

I The flag of the T rkmen nation is her pure honour. 

The greatness of every T rkmen is the greatness of her nation. 

I The T rkmen nation gave these to the world: 

pure T rkmen horses, perfect T rkmen carpets, magnificent T rkmen 
ornaments, wonderful T rkmen clothing and finery, pure white wheat, 
j and the species of the yellowish sheep. 

During the era of the Gaznaly Mahmyt, the Seljuk Kingdom, Kbneiirgeny states, 
T rkmen was the leading nation in the science, literature, and art in the world. 
T rkmens introduced the T rkmen civilization to others. 


I After the collapse of the Harzem@ah state, which had supported science, 
literature and the spiritual world, the T rkmen's eminent philosophers, scholars, 
literati, artists and craftsmen spread not only through Turkey, but also, by another 
route, to Caucasus, Anatolia, Arabia and from there passed though Egypt to 
Spain. In this way, the scientific achievement of the T rkmen nations became 

I the ferment of European scientific advancement. The T rkmen wheel 
precipitated the scientific progress of the world. The life-style of the T rkmens 
made a great contribution to the improvement of science, production and 

I industry. Later those issues will be analysed in depth. 

I Ihave written the Ruhnama to enable my nation to perceive our past and to 
envision our own dignity. And the content is not only related to the past. The 
book is based on the spiritual features peculiar to the T rkmens that developed in 
the past. From this aspect, I would like to draw to your attention to the fact that 

I the Ruhnama is different from the other historical 'titles' written in the past. In the 

I light of the writing tradition of the "Oguznama", which has been held in high 
esteem by the T rkmens since ancient times, I am writing Ruhnama within the 
same tradition. Apart from this, the "Epics of Oguzs" were composed from poor 

I history, knowledge and historical events. Despite containing some of the basic 
concepts of philosophy and historical experience, they were accepted as distinct 

I from the books of philosophy. The reader himself must think, evaluate and 
mature this philosophy in his mind. By 'in his mind'what is meant is something 

! outside the content of the epic of "Oguzs". The Ruhnama deals with the new form 

. of national consciousness. 


Philosophy is a tool of wisdom, and we can use it to analyse the features of the 
I T rkmen spirit. In the epics of "Oguznama", the historical events are ordered 

chronologically. The spiritual and moral dynamics which make a nation into a 
I nation are not considered at length in them. The Epic of "Oguznama" is the 
I writing related to the reputations of the ancestors in the past. By means of this 

writing it is intended that later generations feel proud of their ancestors and, in 

other way, own their awareness of history. Thus, the information or knowledge 

functions as the source and spring of the heart. 

In the period in which I was writing "Ruhnama", the spring of my mind and heart 
was philosophy. I also wrote in the "Ruhnama" style so as to feel proud and get 
pleasure from the greatness of our ancestors. But this goal is to be reached not 
I only by giving information related to historical events but also by explaining their 
I underlying moral meaning and philosophy. This refreshes the past and in 
particular the historical memory. 

LThe past, unrepeatable events traced in history, is no more. Memory is the 

fessence of the flow which combines the happenings of the past, the present and 
the future within the realm of the historical unity of the past. 

I As human beings are mortal, remembering can be taken as a spiritual habit which 
can combine and integrate spiritually the generations that are separated from one 

Looking at ourselves, we see gulfs between the various generations and eras. 
Moreover, here and there past generations did not know each other, did not 
I understand each other's languages, as if all of the T rkmens regarded each other 
as strangers. The ties between them had been broken. 


love of the mother-earth and the protection of the fatherland. This person begins 
to view his own personality as a stronger link in the chain of the generations, as if 
he has been released from moral loneliness and alienation. If Allah wills it, the 
generations who drink deeply from the clean water of the spring of philosophy of 
I the "Ruhnama" may grow into beautiful, moral people. 
Life trains people and history trains the character. 

I The "Ruhnama" is a book opening the spring of the mind and meeting the thirst 
of the dry intellect. In our recent past the number of thirsty intellects has 
increased and the thirst for those springs in the clearings of the morals of 
T rkmens. As we have changed our outside world, the clear water fountains and 
red and green rose gardens in our inner world must be increased. We say 

I T rkmenistan, day by day, is more and more pleasing and beautiful public 
buildings are being constructed. 

Ihave been witnessing the heart of my nation growing into its own beauty. I agree 
I with the principle that, "Beauty, primarily, must be within the heart of the 
people". I am honoured by the current successes. 

Secondly, turning back to our early comparison between "Oguznama" and 

Ruhnama, we can say that Oguznama is a book which is only related to the past. 
I In these books the future is not living either as an idea or a target or a sign. On 

the other hand, the basic feature of the "Ruhnama" is that I can analyse and 
I present the past from the perspectives of the future. In my view the past is the 

possibility of the future coming into being. When I was wondering in the past I 

sought the future. 


It is impossible, however, that they should not have been aware of each other, the 
Seljuks and Magtymguly, the Ottomans and G6rogly. 

Abreak in memory leads to the generations regarding each other as strangers. The 
I reason for the break in memory is the movement away from the frame of national 
I solidarity, caused by heavy foreign domination of the moral values of the 
I generations. This causes the nations to be spiritually and morally divided and 


I The real power lies in the heart of the people. After the collapse of the heart, 
however, man starts to decline in strength because the heart is the spring of 
national pride. After the spring has dried up, to discuss facts becomes nonsense. 
There was no T rkmen streak in such people. 

My basic aim in writing "Ruhnama" is to open the dwindling spring of national 
I pride by clearing it of grass and stones and letting it flow again. I hope to enliven 
' the heart with the medication of Philosophy. It is like replanting the and land of 

the past, which has become unproductive and useless, with the pine trees of the 

T rkmen plateaus. In this way I wish to rid us of the disease, trouble and anxiety 

of insensibility. 

Jut if the memory of the past awakens in someone's mind, then, he, like before, 

! becomes the continuation of history. This person's moral life and capacity to live 

I start to bubble again like a life-giving spring. His mind and heart transform and 

become the area for the continuation of the historical and moral. In this person, 

his ancestors are resurrected with their spirit, their memory, even their capillary 

I bloodvessels again. This person is capable of living, feeling the 


love of the mother-earth and the protection of the fatherland. This person begins 
I to view his own personality as a stronger link in the chain of the generations, as if 
he has been released from moral loneliness and alienation. If Allah wills it, the 
generations who drink deeply from the clean water of the spring of philosophy of 
the "Ruhnama" may grow into beautiful, moral people. 

1 Life trains people and history trains the character. 

[The "Ruhnama" is a book opening the spring of the mind and meeting the thirst 
of the dry intellect. In our recent past the number of thirsty intellects has 
increased and the thirst for those springs in the clearings of the morals of 

I T rkmens. As we have changed our outside world, the clear water fountains and 
red and green rose gardens in our inner world must be increased. We say 

I T rkmenistan, day by day, is more and more pleasing and beautiful public 

I buildings are being constructed. 

I Ihave been witnessing the heart of my nation growing into its own beauty. I agree 

' with the principle that, "Beauty, primarily, must be within the heart of the 
people". I am honoured by the current successes. 

Secondly, turning back to our early comparison between "Oguznama" and 
I Ruhnama, we can say that Oguznama is a book which is only related to the past. 
I In these books the future is not living either as an idea or a target or a sign. On 
the other hand, the basic feature of the "Ruhnama" is that I can analyse and 
present the past from the perspectives of the future. In my view the past is the 
possibility of the future coming into being. When I was wondering in the past I 
sought the future. 


1, by means of the "Ruhnama" string the past, present and future on a single rope. 

[The past is the mark of the future, the present is the consequences of the past and 

the future is the marriage of the past and the present. Thus, the form of the future, 
^ what might be, depends on the degree of our understanding of the past. The 

possibilities of the future depend upon our capacity to perceive which realities of 
' the past are to continue in the future, which are to disappear gradually, and how 

to overcome them. So, the degree of reality of the future is the degree of the 

reality of our mind and will. 

' There was no place for the future in any of the "Oguznama" written in different 
eras because there was no discussion about the problems of the era in them. The 
writers of the stories did not view themselves and their epoch in historical 

The era of "Ruhnama" and the interpretations of the world of Ruhnama are the 
contrary of this because the perspective of the world of "Ruhnama" is different. 
I While acknowledging entirely God's order, will and decree in history, it is 
I necessary to mention the view that we build the future with our own hands. This 
is a confession. To refuse to do this would be the same as to refuse our 
responsibilities for our past, present and future works. I have no notion of 
I becoming haughty and slinging mud at my ancestors. Allah forbid! Besides, the 
era of "Ruhnama" is different from the era when the "Oguznama" epics were 
written", not the age of being formed by history but the age of forming history. 

/^hatever approaches we may use there, we need to admit one thing: we 
ourselves are forming our history, present and 


[The most immediately visible aspects of our nation are the striking material 
I values: the horse, the carpet, our musical instruments (dutar), jewellery and 
ornaments, local/native breed/species dog (alabay), the yellowish breed of sheep 
and the genus of white wheat. It is obvious that there is no need to find evidence 
to prove that these belong to the T rkmens. They are there in full view for all to 
' see. Moreover these values are all pure values which have reached the zenith of 
Ltheir maturity in their areas. In short, these are unique and inimitable values 


rwithout compare. 

Perfection and uniqueness here is the main measure of the value. These kinds of 
values clearly demonstrate the perfection and uniqueness of the free development 
of T rkmens as one nation because in its perfection the work shows the 
craftsman's mastery. The measurement of the perfection of the work is the 
measurement of the skill, the physical and moral powers, and the quality of 
[ striving which have been 


I given to the master by Allah. These are one dimension of the matter. 

I We also try to evaluate the historical value and the age of the production of such 
material values. Thereafter, not only the experts but also the ordinary people can 
know that the ages of such invaluable things are in thousands of years. 
Afterwards, the matter of their age is a matter of the age of the nation because it 
is impossible for the age of the work to be greater than the age of the craftsman. 

' So, the real truth is that thousands of years ago, the material value, as an example 
of perfection, became mature. 

I There was white wheat five thousand years ago, too. 

The same must be said of the T rkmen horse of Ahalteke, the T rkmen iti 
(dog), the carpet and the other artefacts. 

From all this there arises the inevitable conclusion that these values are precisely 
i the proof, clear to the naked eye, that the T rkmen nation is a nation with a 
history of five thousand years. So this is not a frivolous, vain, fabricated idea. So, 
our national honour is far above blackening others with the false accusations 
others used against us. Hence our national honour cannot be put into the same 
scale with others. Our national honour has been established on principles as 
strong as the T rkmen soil. 

Of course, at certain periods when T rkmens lacked complex and well-founded 
' spiritual and philosophical methods and descriptions, there were stages in which 
T rkmens were weak or in decline. We cannot understand fully now from the 
existing knowledge and proofs, the exact reasons why it should have happened 
.so. There have even been peri- 


ods of interregnum, but even those periods were not totally useless or 
unproductive, as, in general, it can be seen that the moral values and the creative 
capabilities of T rkmens were preserved in some way and even rose to the 
highest levels. This is because hard, grievous and complex historical 

opportunities incite the inspiration and moral creativity which he at the basis of 
the nation. 

The wonderful T rkmen epics of "Oguznama", our unique poetry and poetic 
style, T rkmen Suftsm and T rkmen music, all comprise profound meanings in 
which are embedded moral values which have formed over the course of 
thousands of years. 

It is very important to analyse these types of moral values along with their 
historical context, meaning and significance, and to comprehend and express 
I these as the T rkmens' way of life to others. This is necessary, not only to 
establish and achieve once more the greatness and fame of our ancestors, but also 
to understand the principles and basis of our future. 

; In "Ruhnama" the T rkmen people's historical consciousness, matured over 
thousands of years, and their moral power and strength are drawn together. 

"Ruhnama" is a ship. This ship is chartered to bear the news of the past to the 
future over the vast sea of T rkmen history. 

Ruhnama is a courier. This courier transmits the past's secret and necessary news 
to the future. 

Therefore, I say: 
[ If the spirit of T rkmen is the universe then "Ruhnama" 


Icannot replace or fully represent it. At least this is impossible in terms of its 

[^Nevertheless, "Ruhnama" must be the centre of this universe. In this universe, all 
the current and the future cosmic matters should go on spinning, in Ruhnama's 
lattraction, centripetal force and orbits. 

My Dear People! 

I Now, I want to mention my private and personal reasons for the writing of 
"Ruhnama" and the other causes which led me to begin this work. What is the 
meaning of the Head of State writing on philosophical matters? This has to be 
explained in the light of the features of the era and the duties home on my 
shoulders. Of course, had we lived in another epoch, I would only be occupied 

I with state and political affairs and these would be enough. As it is, our era falls at 

I the turn of the new millennium. In this period, five- or ten-year programmes are 
not sufficient for the needs of our state. At this time, it is necessary not only to 
establish a state but also to create a nation, for a nation needs far-reaching moral 

I values and criteria. We have to seek and find ways in which these kinds of 
:riteria can be provided through moral work and traditional and moral 


^^ Eras in which great changes happen always demand that we take on 
^m responsibihties and habihties much heavier than an ordinary president's normal 
^m burdens. The whole foundation of society must be built to the same blueprint 
^m because a nation needs a set of complete and up-to-date criteria. "Ruhnama" 
^^ offers a simple example of this kind of scale. 



My beloved Country, My Dear People! 

These fruitful lands, on which our grandfathers' blood flowed, should be our 
dining table. 

Our ancestors left to our state a treasury full of moral wealth. Let this be a 
national ideal for us. 

I Every state needs a national ideal. The train cannot move except on rails. The 
religions which have been spread throughout the world by prophets are an ideal. 
The people's traditions, principles and particular customs which were composed 
over thousands of years, also represent an ideal. The state must be a school 
conveying the rules of good manners and ethics for life. 

History has proved what are the consequences of making one nation superior to I 

another or of one nation humiliating another. The maxim say that one who bums 
' his mouth with hot milk becomes cautious and even blows his cold yoghurt, so as 

not to bum his tongue again. Alas, ... however, some politicians are still making 
I the same mistake, and it seems that they are not getting wise enough to avoid 

repeating their errors. 

! If one person shows hostility to another, it proves that someone's interest is at 
j stake. If one society shows hostility to another, then a third society will benefit 
! from that conflict, and turn it to its own interest. 

Ibelieve that the T rkmen nation is a great nation. The nation of T rkmens is a 
great nation but it is not greater than other nations. The T rkmen harbours no 
, such base thought. Every T rkmen must bear this advice in his mind throughout 
^he span of his life. i 


' My beloved Country, My dear People! 

Jt is now ten years since the establishment of independent and eternally neutral | 

rkmenistan. In these ten years the T rkmen has totally changed; he believed 
! in his being a great nation and this state is his state. He possessed his own 
freedom, sovereignty, land, water, state and his country. In these ten years, we 
have developed economically and gained a place among the leading countries in 
I the world. This is a significant and honourable achievement of ours. This is the 
Iwarranty of the industriousness of our people and their brilliant power. 

I The Republic of T rkmenistan has surpassed in a month the distance which 
would normally be crossed in a year. It has been observed that T rkmenistan is 

I progressing towards being a rich and developed country. All have seen this, 
friends, foreigners, even the blind! Although, in the beginning, there were some 
people with bad intentions who mindlessly criticized our ways, even they have 
now understood the rightness of our path. Now we are proud of how 

I T rkmenistan has joined the top ranks of the developing countries, in terms of 

Isocial and economic advancement. 

I Ruhnama is truly the "Oguznama" of the third millennium. If we try to express it 
using the name of our nation, which will be widely known along with its 
' achievements, Ruhnama will be our nation's "T rkmennama" of the third 
I millennium. I wrote this book as a generalization of the history and moral 
^experiences of T rkmen people as handed 

down over five thousand years. This is the viewpoint of our nation in the third 
I millennium. 

After completing the Ruhnama, I re-read it, looked at the content once again ' and 
it confirmed the feeling in my heart: I realized that I had carried "Ruhnama" in 
I my heart all my life. I realized that "Ruhnama" was the fruit of my aspirations 
I and writing it was my task in life. That is why today I dedicate to my nation these 
aspirations and works in the form of this book. 

I Thus "Ruhnama" is not only a way of understanding my nation and people, but 
also my method of perception. It is my belief that the reasonable man's perception 
of the world depends upon his ability to perceive himself. 

When a person enters the ocean of the historical memory of the nation, he is at 
^he same time diving into his own ocean. When it is impossible to take two 
iirections at one time, you have to understand clearly that perceptions and 
^philosophy are not good enough by themselves. 

, You cannot approach reality using only thought and intellect. Reality also 
requires the use of the whole heart. It demands that you include your whole self 
' and see your fate and destiny as a whole. 

It was my good fortune to involuntarily comprehend that what I write as my 
' understanding, perceptions and feelings in the Ruhnama are in fact what I have 
been holding as feelings and aspirations in my heart for a long time. These 
feelings lived in me during my youth when I understood the spirit, mercy and 
I value of the homeland. The reason for the 

intimate connection between my fate and the fate of my homeland is the 
j similarity between them. When, after leaving my family and brothers, I was left 
\ feeling isolated and bereft, the homeland was afflicted in the same way. I was 

deeply affected and became as homesick as the soldiers and heroes separated 

from their homeland. 

When I walked the route from the village of Gypjak to the city of Asgabat, 
I between B zmeyin and Ymam Kasym graveyard, I would sense the loneliness of 
the homeland, its homelessness and its spiritual desolation. 

The bleak steppes, the desolate plains, the shrivelled fountains, the bowed 
cypresses, the disintegrating buildings, the lonely homeland, in their entirety, all 
these do not exist only outside me but live too in my internal realm, where they 
cause my heart to ache. 

I The homeland reminds me of a woman who has been slapped and abandoned in 
I the street. 

The resemblance between my fate and that of my homeland almost pushed me 
' into philosophical inquiries. For the first condition of philosophical inquiry is 
emotional exploration. 

The human is like an instrument created by Allah to detect the passage of time. 
The human differs from other living beings in that, as a result of having mind, he 
! possesses the ability to know time. 

our era, the 20th century, people only perceived the passage of time too late 
when they realized they had not done what they ought to have done. They 
regretted the chances they had missed and the things they had neglected to do. 

Their regrets pushed people to re-evaluate the past and present, and this re- 
evaluation became in turn a spiritual accounting, which eventually helped to 
, bring about the collapse of the state and the establishment of the new state. It is 
necessary for the human being to struggle with time. Perhaps this necessity is the 
good fortune of human beings. The only tool with which we may struggle with 
Ltime is memory. 

The human dies, his corpse blends with the soil, but his heart by the means of 
I memory reaches the mind of the following generations. It is in the moral area of 
my heart and memory that Oguz Han, Togrul Beg and Gbrogly Beg and many of 
the others live. 

I It is my aim to transmit by means of my own heart the spirits of the brave men 
living in this moral area to the hearts of all T rkmens so that T rkmens who 
receive the powers from this endless moral fountain may rise again in the next 
millennium. In this way, the T rkmen attains all the necessary strength and 
transform himself into all that is his potential. 

So, Ruhnama, in all its uses and purposes, is a book about the lessons of 
philosophy and the moral experiences of past generations, rather than a history 
book. If we were to compose an accurate history of the T rkmens covering 
thousands of years, then it would make a very large book. We are only now 
starting to write anew the history of the T rkmen, the chronology of events and 
information about them. 

Ruhnama is not a history book. This book explains the world anew and the moral 
principles on which national history is written. The history itself is simply an 
additional aspect to this. One of my main ends is to express the worldview of 
I T rkmens in the new millennium. For that reason, 'Ruhnama' contains some 
history and personal views too. 

I The intellectuals of T rkmenistan must carry out more extensive research on the 
matters expressed in 'Ruhnama'. The essential thing in your reading of this book 
and the recognition of the ideas in it is not to take too narrow a view of its 
meaning and issues. Where history is mentioned, it is not as my main objective 

, but as a tool to express efficiently, reveal and demonstrate my thoughts. It is a 

j tool to indicate the greatness of T rkmens. 

Moral climates do not form suddenly or by coincidence. The last seventy-five 
years we have lived and the burdens which many of us could not bear rendered us 
T rkmens almost unable to gather any moral resources. This was a result of the 
fact that others aimed to use the T rkmen territory merely for the production of 
raw materials and in order to do so they intended to bring T rkmens into the 

[position of a society which would be forced to import their all values from 

I abroad. 

The greatness of the time, since the day we got our independence to the present 
day, lies in the fact that T rkmens transformed themselves from a consumer 
I nation to a producer nation. I assert that the transformation from being a 
consumer nation, either materially or morally, to being in the position of producer 

nation is a great historical transformation. 

Ruhnama is a book which will awaken our nation's capacity for moral 
I productivity and will make them the most industrious. In this historic task, it will 

be the unseen moral catalyst of great material advancement. In this, the power 
' which is our helper is our pride in our past and our respect for our future. 

I The philosophy of the Ruhnama is the basis of this hon- 


our and respect; the emotional aspects of Ruhnama are the essence of this honour 
and respect. 

No book can be written without inspiration. The historical opportunities and new 
! duties facing my nation gave inspiration to my heart. I have always been a poet. 
I Since my youth I have written poems in my diary. The responsibilities resting on 
I my shoulders now force me to move on up from poetry. Nevertheless, the basic 

condition of being fruitful or productive requires that we do not discard the poetic 

inspiration of the heart. 

I The fountain of inspiration of my emotions. The T rkmen nature. 
The fountain of inspiration of my ideas, the history of the T rkmen, 
[The fountain of inspiration of my philosophy, the memory of the T rkmen. 

The Second Section 

The T rkmen's Path 

The Beloved T rkmen people! 
The Beloved T rkmen nation! 

The T rkmen people has a history of five thousands years, a history of victories, 
■defeats and heroism. We are proud of this glorious history, which is the legacy of 
|our ancestors. Our glorious history, as we gain our independence and neutrality, 
/ill last forever. 

Our history is like a light that excites the spirit of every member of our nation. 
Inherited from our ancestors, our past is sacred and precious. For thousands of 
years, our ancestors have protected their self-identity and their consciousness of 
being one nation, and they have perceived this mission as a sacred value. It was 
not easy for them to overcome the great impediment of history. This love, for our 
glorious homeland and our history, gained by fortitude, sacrifice and sincere 
enthusiasm, has marked the heart of every member of our nation. In its every 
comer, village, and city the members of our nation live warmly united. 

^ith its cloudy mountains that reach the sky, this land is Candibil, T rkmenistan. 

This sacred land with its mountains, fields, seas, deserts, and rivers is of God's 
■grace and favour to our nation. If it was said, "You are free. Travel around the 
globe and choose wherever you want as your homeland," the sons of this nation 
could not find a more beautiful and beneficial land. Our nation, founder of more 
Lthan seventy great states, prin- 

cipalities, and Soltanates, after roaming the globe, settled in these lands. 

Words lack sufficient power to tell of the fatherly mercy and motherly compassion 
of this land. 

^During the last millennium, the love of our nation penetrated the depths of this 
land. It seems the love of homeland became an inseparable part of our nation's 
spirit. Truly, our nation and homeland are like body and soul. 

^or us, this land is splendid. Those brave men who sacrificed their lives for this 
land are buried here. In this land you find Mdne Baba (Abu Seyit Abyl- Hayyr), 

^ho influenced the whole Islamic world and travelled every inch of our land 
praying to Allah and shedding tears for the goodness of all people. You find 


sincere concerns and pleas of Magtymguly, who travelled all through our land, the 
mountains and valleys, keeping long vigils during the late hours of the night and 
the early hours of the mornings praying for the salvation of all people. You find 
the spirit of G rogly riding his horse all through our land at a gallop for the 
defence of all the oppressed, ill-treated and innocent. 

In this land, if you plant the stick in your hand it will bud as green as a forest, or 
bloom like a rose garden; if you shoot an arrow into the soil it will turn into a 
golden ear of grain! In this land, the words which fall from your mouth become 
wise sayings. These lands are no less than a blessed source of bread and 
abundance for those who live here! 

^ike the breath of Gorkut Ata, Hoja Ahmet yasawy, Bahaweddin Nagy bendi, 
Jejmeddin Kubra, Salar Baba, Mdne Baba, this fertile and powerful land is a 
' remedy for thousands of ailments and problems. When you touch the 


soil of this land to the face of a miserable exile who has become blind through 
weeping over his loneliness, he will surely see again. This soil will cure him. This 
land will open his eyes. 

Our ancestors! G n"^ Han and Ay'^ Han are like the golden thread of the Sun 
always watching over us 

Our ancestors! Gok^ Han and yyldyz^ Han like the silver-coloured nights watch 
over us ! 

_T rkmen Dag^ Han stands on your right; De'niz^ Han stands on your left! 

The head of our generation Oguz Han greets our nation from five thousand years 

^s our brave nation is thirsty for a state, this land has a thirst to rise, for real 

J Would it not be as exalted as the Mountain of K pet, as exciting as the river of 
leyhun, and as beautiful as the heart of Sumbar, to live in such a land? 

This land which Allah, the most Exalted, protects is 
:alled T rkmenistan: Free and Impartial T rkmenistan. 

The history of the Tijrkmen nation can be traced back to the Flood of Noah. We go 
by the name of T rk-iman, that is 'o 

asli nur^^. We originated from Oguz Han. 

4 Gun means day. 7 Asli Nur is made of light 

5 Ay means moon. 

6 Gok means sky. 

7 Yildiz means star. 

8 Dag means mountain. 

9 Deniz means sea. 

10 Here, the term T rkmen is explained in a different etiological method, that is 
as follows: Turkfaith-divine light essence. 


Oguz Han had several sons, named Gtin Han, Ay Han, Yyldyz Han, Gbk Han, and 
Dag Han. Each son also had four sons. 

The 24 clans of Oguz originate from the 24 grandchildren of Oguz Han. Each of 
|:hese clans has a different name and reputation. The Oguz people all around the 
globe are of these 24 clans. 


This is the right branch. 
le is the eldest son of Oguz and he has four sons: 
The first son: Gaya, which means strong, well built, and undefeatable like a rock. 

lis seal is Bird 
shinbone, neck. 

falcon, s y k (a portion of meat); right segment, right 

^The Second Son: Bayat, which means imperial, highbom, magnanimous and 

His seal is y Bird falcon, s y k (a portion of meat), right segment, and 

right shinbone, neck. 

|The Third Son: Akev , which means they are everywhere, progressive and they 
are successful everywhere. 

Its seal is 

S y k (a portion of meat), right segment, and right shinbone. 

The Fourth Son: Karaevh, which means their house is black. 
I" Gray-affow 

Its seal is Bird. S y k (a portion of meat), right seg- 
lent, right shinbone, neck. 


le is the second son of Oguz Han and he has four sons, 
rhe first son: Yazir, which means he has a lot lands. 

lis seal is . Bird, eagle. S y k; anklebone and hipbone. 

The second son: Dijger, which means they go somewhere to gather. 

lis seal is . Bird, eagle, s y k; anklebone and hipbone. 
The third son: Dodurga, which means he has property. 

lis seal is Bird eagle, s y k; anklebone and hipbone, 

rhefourth son: Yaparli. 

lis seal is Bird eagle, s y k; anklebone and hipbone. 


He is the third son of Oguz Han and he has four sons. 
Thefirst son: Av ar, which means agile and good hunter. 

i^His seal is Bird rabbit. S y4ik; right hipbone and rib. 

The second son: Kizik, which means strong, systematic, order-oriented. 

'His seal is Bird rabbit. S y k; right hipbone and 
The third son: Begdill, which means speaks succinctly like a prince. 

lis seal is Bird ^ rabbit. S y k; right hipbone and 

rhefourth son: Karkin, it means helper, serving food. 

lis seal is Bird -*^ rabbit. S y k; right hipbone and rib. 



This is the left branch. 

^He is the fourth son of Oguz Han and he has four sons. The first son: Ba'yndyr, 
/hich means he is rich and y 

lis seal is Bird a white falcon. S y k; left stomach, neck 
rhe second son: Becene, which means he is hardworking 

lis seal is Bird ^ a white falcon. S y k; left stomach, neck 
rhe third son: Cavul, which means honourable and known. 

lis seal is Bird a white falcon. S y k; left stom- 
The fourth son: Cepni, which means it gains no matter where it is. 

112 Three-arrows. 


lis seal is . Bird, a white falcon. S y k; left stomach, neck. 


|He is the fifth son of Oguz Han and he has four sons. 

The first son: Salyr, which means his sword is victorious everywhere. 

Its seal "^ . Bird, Uc. Stiy k; coccyx and rib bone. 
The second son: Eymur, which means he has many wives and he is rich. 


lis seal ^^ . Bird, Uc. S y k; coccyx and rib bone. 
The third son: Alayunt, it means he has horses. 

lis seal . Bird, Uc. S y k; coccyx and rib bone. 

The fourth son: Uregir it means he is ready to help, useful. 

lis seal ^ ^ . Bird Uc. S ytik; coccyx and rib bone. 


le is the sixth son of Oguz and he has four sons. 

The first son: Igdir, which means goodness, completeness, bravery. 

lis seal YI . Bird, Cakir, S y k; coccyx and rib bone 

113 Dag means mountain. 


^The second son: Bugduz, which means he has respect for everyone. 

■ r^ 

|His seal Bird, Cakir, S y k; coccyx and rib bone 

The third son: Yiva, which means his rank is above them all. 

lis seal Bird, Cakir, S y k; coccyx and rib bone 

The fourth son: Kinik, which means he is the most beloved 

iHis seal is ^ Bird, Cakir, S y k; coccyx and rib bone _^^^^^^^ 

laving subordinated the banks of the Mankishlak, Seyhun and Jeyhun and the foot 
"of Mount K pet, Oguz Han returned to his homeland. On his return he invited all 
his sons and grandchildren for a large banquet. Oguz Han gave gold, silver, and 
precious fabrics as gifts. Then he said: 

rOh my sons, I am now old. Death is approaching for me. Listen carefully to my 
ladvice! See my advice as wise words on the way of truth and live your life in 
laccordance with my advice. Pass my advice on to your children and your tribe! 
And may they also follow my advice forever! May they also pass my advice on to 
all their descendants. If your tribesmen conform to my advice, forever and ever, 
you will be the masters of the world; no enemy will be able to overcome you! 
Follow my advice, and you will not change your religion. Obey my advice, and 
you will be prosperous in this life and in the next. If they do not keep their word 
and do not follow my advice and orders, they will certainly fall out with each 
other. Each tribe will find itself in a different climate, a different region. 


Oguz Han then said to his six son and twenty-four grandchildren: 
I" Oh my sons! Give me an affow." ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| 

CHe was given an arrow. Oguz Han took the arrow in his hand and broke it. Then 
he said to two of his sons: 

"Oh my sons! Give me two arrows." 

He was given two arrows. He broke them again. Then he took three arrows from 
thee more of his sons, held them together and broke them as well. Next, he took 
six arrows from six of them and he tried to break all six arrows at the same time. 
He failed. Oguz Han then requested twenty- four arrows, one from each of his 
grandsons and tied the arrows together. Then to his children he said: 

Try with your all your will and might to break all these together. Are you able to 
Ido this? 

I His sons replied: 
"We cannot break all these affows." 
Oguz Han said: 

"Take a lesson from this example and support each other. According to my wish, 
following my death G n should be your new Han. After him his son Gaya should 
be your new Han. As long as there is a Han from Gaya's tribe, Bayat should not be 
your Han. Ba'yat should only be the ruler of his tribe. As long as Gaya is the Han, 
Bay 'at should be the ruler of the right part of our land. The ruler of the left part of 
our land should be Bayyndyr. Follow these arrangements; do not take the younger 
brother as your leader as long as the elder brother lives. Gaya Han can be the Han 
of all of the twelve tribes to the right and left. 


In accordance with the order of Oguz Han, they then divided the people into three 
"groups. Their duties were to be divided in this way: it was to be the duty of 
scholars and learned people to collect taxes and flocks of sheep. The duties of 
budgeting, governing expenditure, the vizierate, and the chief stewardship 
belonged to the same group. 

Those who were brave and stout-hearted were to be assigned leadership roles. 
Those who were agile and nimble were trained to use the lasso. 

^Those who were uneducated and ignorant were to be given sticks to be shepherds 
of camels, cattle, and sheep. 

If a captain or another commander should die, one with the best capacity for 
grooming the horses and for cultivating the land, was to take over. After the death 
of the chief of the tribe, if there should be no son to represent him after his death. 

I whoever might be the bravest, the most experienced, the best informed on mihtary 
f affairs, with a good record of war bravery was to be the new chief of the tribe. 

I You should not keep moving from one place to another, nor staying in one place. 
^■You should stay on the mountain pasture during the summer. You should stay in 

sheltered seaside places during the winter and in warm places during the autumn. 

If you follow this advice your cattle will not waste away and their milk will not 

diminish. You will thrive. No matter how many years go by, no matter how many 

generations pass, as long as you follow my advice your offspring will be blessed. 

They will live in abundance. Allah will help them and send his grace upon them. 

Their state will be everlasting, their lives will be long and the nations of the world 

.will pray for them. 


After this age, there will be many kings, Hans and many sons from them. If their 
advisors, and the wise people with them do not protect the order, the Hanate and 
the Soltanate will be shaken. When their order is shaken, they will long for the 
return of Oguz Han but it is impossible. 

There will always be many captains, commanders, and generals. Are those who do 
lot abide by the advice of Oguz capable of leading armies? Those who do not 
listen to our advice in their own land are like those cast into great seas who cannot 
Iswim, or they like an arrow shot into a great forest. Such people cannot be leaders. 

lAman who can order his household can lead ten people. He who leads ten people 
can govern fifty people. Whoever leads fifty people has the right to govern a 
hundred people. He who governs a hundred people can be the leader of one 
thousand people. Whoever controls a thousand people can be the leader of an army 
division. And he who can control an army division is easily able to be the ruler of 
I his tribe. One who can be a ruler can also be the leader of a province. 

1 fro: 

r Tf o 

Whoever keeps his household in order can safeguard his property and country 
from liars and thieves. 


If a corporal cannot control his household, it is obvious that his son and wife share 
the responsibility. From his army unit of ten men a new corporal should be 
elected. The same method should be applied to other rulers, such as commanders, 
ruler of divisions and so on. If a man commits a crime, the commander of the 
|di vision should request from the major the identity of the man. The major should 
request the name of the criminal from the captain. Finally, in this way, the criminal 
should be found and punished. The perpetrators of theft and robbery should be 
caught and punished in the same way. 


^Vf there is a consensus of three learned men over an issue, this opinion can be 
declared and repeated everywhere. Otherwise it is impossible to consider an 
opinion to be true. Compare your own and others' opinions with such learned 
people's opinions. If it is in accord with such blessed opinions you can adopt it. 
Otherwise do not speak of it. 

If a horse which can gallop when it is fat can also gallop when it is thin, it is a 
good horse. If a horse is not good in both cases, it is not a good horse. 

Great rulers who are leading and waging war or hunting with friends show their 
horses. They pray to Allah all the time and they trust in Allah; they wish for 
victory and blessings from Allah, the Truth. You should be as brave as a young 
steer when serving in the military, and you should be like a hungry white falcon 
ready to hunt when taking part in a war. 

Abrave man is not always visible like the sun. If his wife keeps the house clean 
and tidy and is hospitable to visitors while he is absent because he is hunting or at 
war, she will undoubtedly enhance his position in society. Her own fame will also 
spread like her husband's. A good man can be recognized by the actions of a good 
woman. If a woman is not competent in her own home, this problem influences 
her husband. 

Traders are happy, exuberant and hopeful when they come with their decorated 
fabrics, and their goods for the bazaar. The commanders of armies should teach 
soldiers archery, grooming horses and wrestling. The commander should test the 
soldiers in these things. Those who are brave and lionhearted will be happy and 
exuberant if they can trust in their abilities and skills. 

|If a man from our people fails to comply with orders, he 


must be warned first. If he fails for a second time, he must be threatened and 
unished. If for a third time he fails, he must be exiled to a remote place like 
otan, where nobody lives and which hunters rarely visit. But he must be allowed 
to return after a while. If he complies with the order of the community, there is no 
problem; this is good. Otherwise he must be jailed. If he is still far from complying 
I with the order of our community, his brothers should meet to consult about him. 
I According to this consultation a decision should be taken about what to do with 


L fatl 

/Whenever you see old people who need help remember this saying: "He who does 
lot help the poor, cannot be the leader." So help all poor and old people. 

The ruler is the father of the orphans and the homeless. The ruler must show a 
father's concern for them. As there is a difference between a poor father and a rich 


father, the ruler should behave like a rich father. 

It is a great task to govern the land and the people. The ruler must always be far- 
sighted and intelligent, and he must be aware of every development. He must pray 
to Allah, The Great. He must carry out all his duties in the way of Allah so that 
from his works, knowledge and actions, the generations may be raised that will be 
beneficial to this world and the next. 

The ruler should assign important jobs to capable and experienced advisors. He 
/ill regret it if he assigns important duties to bad people. 

"All thieves, traitors and criminals should be punished since no one should attempt 
to violate rules and prohibitions. Those who are suffering tyranny should be 
helped in order to reduce the numbers of tyrants and merciless people. As it is 


said, "The ruler who does not punish the criminal and thief strikes his own caravan 
and people with his own hands." If a ruler does punish crime, he gains absolute 


Anu irwan Adyl, died as an infidel. A man from the community saw him in 
dream living a very good life and asked him: 

How did you manage to reach such a rank? 
mu irwan Adyl replied: 

-I had no mercy on criminals and I never offended the innocent! 

If a man treated with kindness by another man feels indebted to him and respects 
lim and replies cordially to him, he is one who respects jus ce anc equity. Tru y, 
tie fame and the reputation of rulers originate in their armies and states. If there is 
no army and state, there is no governance. For this reason the importance of army, 
state and land should be known and appreciated. Those who have no such respect 
are merciless. 

Giving power and authority to cruel people, even after they have been punished, is 
like setting a wolf as shepherd after it has taken an oath to be kind. Theft, 
criminality and wickedness are intolerable. Killing a man whose tyranny is clear is 
better than sending him into exile. Putting a snake from your house into your 
neighbour's house is not legitimate. 

When a ruler gets angry, he should not be hasty because a living thing can be 
killed, but the dead cannot be brought back to life. A thing which has been mended, 

can never be as strong as it was, but the undamaged can be broken easily. 


The property of the deceased should be given to poor and homeless people. The 
blessed hands of the ruler should not be polluted by taking the property of others. 
Nothing is to be left in this world other than good remembrance and fame. 

Jever try to damage the friendship of two men. On the contrary, try to make 
friends with both of them. 

^n unjust ruler is like a farmer who plants corn and expects wheat. 

Good but weak people should not be injured. Ants united can defeat a tiger or a 

The history of a nation rises like a river from a small spring. However the golden 
periods of our glorious history illuminate the world. Oguz Han armoured in pure 
gold and bearing his quiver on his legendary horse waits at the begin- 
ning of this glorious history. The T rkmen people, the heirs 

of Oguz Han, holding green flags wait at this point at the beginning of another 
Golden Century. The green standard is the symbol of spring, revival and rising! 

The famous historian Riza Nur writes as follows on Oguz Han, the origin of the 
rkmen: "Oguz Han is the national prophet of the T rkmens. But his name is 
lot among the names of the prophets. He is indicated only by the word Torg in the 
old Hebrew books like the Torah." In another of his books, "General Turkish 
History", written at the beginning of the 20th century, Riza Nur writes as follows: 

"...It was Oguz Han who named the five Turkish tribes 

14 The current T rkmen flag, which is on a green base or background. 


as the masters of the earth. He reigned for 1 16 years. However this 116 years 

should be understood in the old T rkmen calendar." 

Oguz Han, the ruler of great lands, conquered them with words inspired by Allah 

rather than with his sword. He requested that we should be merciful and 


If I am asked, I have never said no. I always give what I am asked. 

I waited for the end of good and bad, and I reached my goal. 

I explained all my wishes to my people and I convinced them. 

Without a sword, I govern the people with good words^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

I govern with justice and have organized my own state. 

I never oppressed people, never attempted to kill innocents; I was always patient 
even though I had been oppressed. 

He who follows the path of truth, never finds evil. 

If your nation does not appreciate your way, you will never see good. 

He who oppresses his own subordinates, he will prepare his own grave. 

He who oppresses his own subordinates is doing what his enemies want. His 
enemies will be happy about this. 

A way other than justice never suits a rulel 


In the age when the Egyptian pharaohs declared themselves the sons of God, Oguz 
Han came into this world. After he had grown into an adult and a brave man, he 
trained his own people to be the same. Finally he taught all the other peoples of 
/orld in the same manner 

"Soldiers without the fear of death wage war in their iron armout. Great ideas live 
forever illuminating the people. The Egyptian pharaohs were mummified and 
buried in their PYTamids made of huge stones in the wish that they might be 
eternal. Our forefather Oguz Han wanted to be eternal in a different way, in the 
hearts, in the spirit of our nation. He preferred to live in the opinions of our people. 
Opinions and ideas are more permanent than stones and mummified bodies. Oguz 
Han knew well it was not people but their opinions which are eternal and lasting. 
The treasure of Oguz Han's opinions, which we have inherited from him, has 
thrown a light on us from 5000 thousand years ago. 


One day its time will come and Oguz Han's opinions and ideas will illuminate not 
only us but also everyone on earth who has respect for reason and opinion. 

I The man who knows Oguz Han knows the wisdom and richness of his words and 
I opinions. Each of them opens new horizons for us. His words are meaningful like 

those of prophets. These words cannot be understood without a deep, careful 



Man should solve the two most important questions of his life during his youth. 
I The first is to find a profession which will make his life meaningful. The second is 
I to find a beloved who will make him happy. 


Our Prophet (peace be upon him) also tried to reach two targets during his life. 
I The first was to convince all people of the unity of God and the second to gather 
I humanity around this idea of God's unity. 

Oguz Han also tried to achieve two targets during his reign. The first was to 
become the ruler and the second to establish his order and rule in the community - 
I in order to create a new community. |l 

I There exist nations where the persons who live in them should exalt the dignity of 
1 their nation. 


I There exist nations where persons should try to exalt themselves to be part of this 
I nation. 

I The T rkmen nation is the second type; it is a great nation. Its members should 
I work hard to exalt themselves to the level of their nation's dignity. 

I The lover who is as exuberant as the tumbling river Jeyhun, does not believe that 
I there is another sweetheart as beautiful as his sweetheart. He sees his darling as an 

angel sent from heaven. We are the lovers of our nation. However we are not 
hovers who have totally lost their reason over their beloved. We are trying to 11 
[understand our nation by trying to understand our nation's ideas; we are proud of 
lour nation's dignity. Let us think about the captivity and the unfortunate situation 

that we have experienced within the last hundred years. We have been part of a 
I nation in which it was prohibited to say 'I Jove my nation', in which it was 

prohibited to say 'my nation'. For this reason we should love our nation twice as 

I much now. 
We love our nation, our homeland, our state. Love 


becomes much when it is shared. Fire becomes fierce when it is fed with firewood. 

I Prayer becomes acceptable if it is frequently repeated. 
We first listen to our minds before commencing a task. The mind of man never 
deceives him, because Allah is enthroned in our hearts. Listen your own heart. 
It is difficult to remain pure and clean on earth. Even the light that illuminates 
everything around blackens whatever the fire touches. Be careful not to cause 
harm when you are trying to do good. 

IWords, though they may resemble each other, have different meanings. The 
I arrows we fire are similar as well, but only few of them hit the target. 

I When a dog barks his owner checks what is happening around him. Listen. Know 
I how to listen. Even animals listen. You are human, so listen with your heart. 

We say months and days pass so quickly. No, in fact months and days pass so 
[slowly; what passes quickly is life. 

... The treasure we have inherited from fifty centuries of our past is nothing but 
ruined cities and old buildings. It is not enough to be learned to understand this 
[legacy. In order to understand the meaning of this legacy, you should read it as 
you read the Qur'an. You should decipher the deep meaning behind each word. 
Oguz Han's name means sky and earth. 

I The names of his six sons denote the six great things in this world. 


|Kyat, who was killed by Oguz Han, was a totem of the previous religion! 

G k Bbrij, who came to the world with a thunderbolt from the sky, is a totem of 
the second period! 




"He who knows himself is a saint". The human becomes human by knowing 
I himself. 

Recognition of the nation is the duty of brave men and of clever men! 

Idesire to talk with our ancestors who rode on horseback in the depths of history. I 
I try to talk with them, with their fame. However they are busy with their important 
[problems. Suddenly you hear G roylv's enthusiastic voice from the mountains: 

lo lads! Let's feast and drink. 

And relieve our hearts for a while 

Let's push our enemies off and clear the way As our ancestors did. 

I Thy G rogly says, "You, guys! Fill the bowls full! 

I I am proud of the Turkmen! 

I love you all!" 
I You shout, "G rogly, G rogly Beg, I am here!" G rogly does not hear you! 

However, you hear his voice, the hooffalls of his galloping horse, as they are close 
Lby you. Tears fall from your eyes. The mountains where G rogly lived became 



Until the third decade of the 20 century, the T rkmen traditionally rode on 
horseback in heavy armour. This was not a sign of rank or status, but a tradition. 
iThis tradition was part of Oguz Han's legacy to us. 

I The big states founded by Oguz Han lasted thousands of years. The alphabet he 
[prepared was also used for thousands of years. Exactly when this alphabet fell out 
lof useis not 


known, but there is an 18 century lamentation for it named "Beautiful twenty five^ 
lby the poet Sheydai: 

How pleasing sounds to ears, 


Saying all the beautiful twenty- five 

Some with tuneful voice, the vowels, 

I followed all the beautiful twenty- five. 
Seven were made of voice, 

I And eighteen contained noise, 

I After three thousand years of life 

I Why let yourself go, all the beautiful twentyfive? 

Oh, Sheydayy says. Worse happened, 

I Alas, all the folk moum, lament for you, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


ir , 

Now they scorn you, 

Thus vanished, all the beautiful twenty- five Oh my beloved people! 

15 The ancient, now forgotten, the alphabet of Oguzs, with 25 letters, 7 vowels 
and 18 consonants 


I We, as the heirs to the great T rkmen legacy should respect and know the II 

historical legacy of our ancestors, and we should study our cultural richness. This I 
fidelity to our past is our historical duty. I 


I The style of our nation's culture and life originates with Oguz Han. I 

I We know the wise stories of the prophets and their tales, lessons for us from Oguz 
I Han. The source of the great states we founded in the past is also Oguz Han. ■! 

"He who has respect for the elder becomes the ruler; one who has respect for the I 
ruler becomes glorious." "Sell your street to your neighbour so that you can come I 
back later." "He who has no elder has no youth!" "He who has no old has no new!" I 
"My fellow countryman is my brother." "I have a brother so I never worry." "I I 

have a brother, I have a supporter." "See yourself as milk, and see your friend as I 
cream." "Neighbour on doomsday!" I 

I Oguz Han ordered us to obey our brothers even they are older by one day. By II 
saying, "If there are no elders, there are learned people", he ordered us to obey our I 
learned people if there are no experienced old people among us. I 

I The absence of Oguz Han who illuminated humanity with his opinions and ideas I 
I was felt on his demise. Then the old vizier of Oguz Han, Erkil Hoja summoned a I 
I consultative group of learned and experienced people. ^1 

I They gathered for a special session to discuss how to govern state affairs after I 

I Oguz Han. The decisions taken in this special session then became a book. In a I 
[chapter of this book it says: I 


"If you cut up a sheep or ten sheep or a hundred sheep, share the meat as follows. 

I Each of you shall eat the meat with his sons or friends". "When a man close to the 
ruler commits a crime, during his punishment none of the ruler's relatives or sons 
shall help the man who punishes the criminal. But anyone who says "This criminal 
protected me" should be taken to the presence of the ruler and punished severely. 
Then this shall be an example for all!" ^ ^^^ 

I Aman from Bozoks of the Oguz generation shall be the ruler. Two persons shall 
never be your rulers at the same time. If there is one Han it means order, but two _■ 
Hans means disorder. Old, wise people said, "A sheath cannot handle two || 

swords". "A woman cannot be engaged to two men." "Two customs cannot live in 

la land!" || 

I Oguz Han's chief stewards on the council said, "We shall never think of going 
against this advice! If our sons from our lineage are on the truth path, they shall 
follow this book and principles. If they say 'We shall go by the illicit way,' they 
will never consider the principles of this book". Then the chief stewards all signed 
the book and it was kept in the treasury of G n Han. 

G n Han at that time was seventy years old. 

I The descendants of Oguz Han, following this covenant-book, reigned for long 
'years. The names of several tribes cited by Oguz Han, such as Gaya and Bayat, 
even survive today, having passed from generation to generation. ■ 

Oguz Han illuminated the path of the Oguz people, our ancestors, for thousands of 
I years. 

Another advice our forefather Oguz Han left for us was to assume a task according 
I to who you are! Big tasks for 



big people, small tasks for small. If you are the husband of your household, your 
duty is to protect your family; if you are the chief steward of your tribe, your duty 
is to govern your tribe; if you are the ruler, your duty is to govern your land; if you 
are the leader your duty is to govern the whole homeland! 

Once upon a time, a very poor old man who had lived a very unfortunate 
existence, was approaching the end of his life, coming close to Allah and destiny 
Upon the order of God a wise man approached the old man and asked him about 

I his problems and life. The poor man complained about the conditions of his life. 

I The wise man sent by God then said: 


-I will give you a fixed period of time for the next month. Go and try to find the 
I best life you can. I will change your life according to your choice and give you the 
life you most desire. _ 

I The poor old man after watching the rich men whom he had envied before found 
lout that there was nothing to be happy about in their life. After a month the wise 
man sent by God came again and asked the old and poor man: 

-Will you take such and such a person's destiny? He is both rich and wise. There is 
I no one else like him here. 

I The rebellious man replied: 
No, I do not want his life! He has no son! 


-All right, so take this one's life and destiny. This man has four sons like lions and 
I he is the Han of a great country. 

-No, I cannot! I am not mad enough to wage- a war if it happens. 


The wise man sent by God offered several alternatives, one after the other. In the 
end the poor man understood that his life was the best one for him. ■ 

(Everyone's soul is so sweet for him; everyone's destiny is blessed for him. Oh my 
people! Be content, be happy. Complaining only makes you unhappy and 


Instead of complaining, try to find a solution to the problems you are facing. There 
lis no problem without a remedy. Allah, who gives the problems, gives the f 

remedies and solutions with them. The one whose soul is supreme finds the better 
I way. mi 

I The reign of Oguz Han was a golden age. His ideas and opinions were not limited 
I to one country and land, but were so great as to contain all the earth. He was such 
a great man, whose opinions illuminated all the nations of the world. 

I Anew nation was bom with Oguz Han and the fortune of the T rkmen nation was 
exalted with him. ■! 

I Our ancestors said, "It is not only the reader who benefits from the reading; the 
listeners also get the benefit." It was Oguz Han's eminence and humanity which 
led him to adopt the sons of war martyrs as his own sons. 

I The Hans who came after Oguz Han also followed his path. 

Our path is such a great path. On this great path, our duty is to accomplish great 
things, my dear nation. 


102 J 

After Oguz Han's death, as he had requested, his son, G n Han, ascended to the 
throne. Oguz Han's vizier, Erkil Hoja, became the vizier and advisor of G n Han. 
One day Erkil Hoja said to G n Han, "Oguz Han was a great ruler. He conquered 
I all the lands on earth. He had countless treasure and property. He died leaving all 


those to us. According to the will of Allah, each of you has had four sons. May u\ 
God protect your sons from conflict over the throne. It is only by assigning a name 
and a symbol to each tribe and group that unity and peace can be preserved in our ■ 

[homeland. They shall each define their own treasure, lands, domestic I 

I administration, cattle with their own signs and official seals. Then none shall ■! 

I complain of another. All shall know their way and symbols, and this is the basis of 

I the perpetuity of the state. " 

G n Han accepted the truth of these words and Erkil Hoja continues as G n I 

Han's advisor and vizier. After this event, the titles of Bozok and Cqok were given I 
to the six sons. The tribes of the left and the right were named with different I 

names, and they were each given a different reputation, seal and sign. A specific I 
animal's name was given to each of the 24 grandchildren as a title. According to I 
this tradition, no tribe kills the animal which represents their tribe's name; neither I 
do they eat its meat, because this animal bears their sign and name. ■! 

Erkil Hoja in order to prevent conflict among different tribes during meals given I 

on specific occasions defined the share of each tribe beforehand and distributed I 

each tribe's meat before they started eating. In this way the names of the 24 I 

grandchildren of Oguz Han came out of this sharing. These names later became I 

their official names. I 

I The basic reason for the strength of the state founded by 104 ■! 

I Oguz Han is that it rested on strong and wise customs. As long as rules and order I 

are respected, power and strength are enhanced. We too should maintain and 

I preserve the customs of Oguz Han. 


I There have been many rulers from the descendants of Oguz Han. In every century 
I there have been many powerful and fortunate rulers from the 24 Oguz tribes. The 
Oguz lineage reigned for a long time. For example, the Salyrs reigned for a period, 
and after them there came several other famous rulers. In this way, through the 
stories of each ruler, the history of the offspring of Oguz lasted. 

We know from which tribe or son of Oguz Han each ruler or beg comes. The 
Soltans of Seljuk and their fathers were also great and famous rulers. Rulers from 
the Oguz lineage reigned in the lands of Iran and Turan, and even in the large area 
from Egypt to China for more than four hundred years. In Ruhnama, their history 
is briefly told within the context of the history of the people of Oguz. 

Gorkut Ata of the Bayat clan lived in the age shortly after the Prophet (peace be 
I upon him). Gorkut Ata was the wise man of the Oguz people. What he said 
[happened; he foretold the future. Allah inspired his heart. _ 

One day, Mahy 'a, the ruler of Merw, was given a letter confirming his position as 
Iruler by the Caliph Ah. In the letter it said, "In the name of Allah, the Great and 
[Merciful, may the works of those who follow the just be easy. Oraz Mahyya, the ^ 


ruler of Merw, came to me. I am very pleased at his visit." This was after the 
■Muslim army had entered these lands and stayed in the region and T rkmens an 
other clans 



and tribes had started discussions and formed relationships with them, and as a 
result they had converted to Islam in groups without any fight. 
I Why did the Merw people do such an unusual, even unique thing and open the 
I doors of their city to the armed enemy without putting up a fight? 

Gorkut Ata the spiritual leader of his nation was among the first to accept Islam. 
He visited Mekka and Medina and performed his duty of pilgrimage there. 

Anyone with sense who reads the Book of Gorkut Ata can understand how far- 
sighted, successful and wise Oguz Begs' worldview was. In the book of Gorkut 
Ata it can be seen that Oguz people had a great wealth of literature and cultural 
diversity in festivals and holidays. Could a society with such a wealth of literature, 
art and cultural range be close to the primitive culture of fire- worshippers? The 
I religion of fire- worshippers was perpetuated by certain narrowminded 
[philosophers of the ancient times, such as Mazdak and Mani. These philosophers 
I by modifying the religion of fire- worshipping suggested new practices such as the 
sharing of property and even of women. Their ideas and practices do 



hot resemble our opinions and ideas. The 10 century historian Ibn-i Fadlan wrote 
about the T rkmen as follows: "The T rkmen people do not cover the faces of 
their women and girls like their neighbours. Their women are free. However, they 
do not know what it is to be unchaste. T rkmen women throughout history have 
lived without the slightest stain to their honour." 


I The enemies of Lady Burla, mother of Oraz Mahyy'a, wanted to make her drunk in 
I order to seduce her. When they 



I came to the place where the women were held captive, they asked, "Who is Lady 
I Burla, here?" All the women in one voice replied, "I am Lady Burla." However, 
I her devious enemies said, "Force all of them to eat the roasted body of her son, 
I Oraz. The rest may all eat of it but his mother cannot." And they attempted to kill 
the son of Gazan. Aware of what was happening. Lady Burla asked her son, "How 
lean I choose between eating your flesh or dishonouring your father's name?" Her 
I son angrily replied. 

Mother! Let your mouth dry up. 


Let your tongue rot away, 
I Were not your rights of God's rights 
I Then I would force myself to rise against you 

And grip you by your collar and throat, 

And bring you down under my coarse heels. 

And kick your white face against the dark soil. 

Let them slice my flesh and fry it on the fire 

And put it before the daughters of the forty beg. 

And eat from it two if they eat one. 
But never will you defame the honour 
Of my father, Gazan! 

I The religion of Islam penetrated deeply into the spirit of the T rkmen people. 
I After reading the Qur'an or after performing the prayer, they open their hands and 
I pray to God sincerely with their purest feelings. 

Since they followed the religion of Gbk Tann/ the God of the Skies and they 
believed God was in the heavens before 


Islam, it was easy for our ancestors to adopt Islam as their religion. 

Oguz Han said to the girl to whom he was engaged: "They have engaged you to 
me now. I will accept you as my wife and love you wholeheartedly if you accept ' 
that Allah is one." The girl replied, "I do not know anything about the real god, but 
|l will carry out your orders and words." Oguz Han this time said, "My only desire I 
is this. I mean I order you to believe in Allah, the One and Only." The girl replied, 
"I consent to all your words and orders." After this, the girl became a real believer ■ 
with a real faith, serving God carefully. I 

Oguz Han then took the girl as his wife and loved her wholeheartedly and forgot I 
|his former wives. al 

I The T rkmen were already rich in treasure, great cattle, great amounts of property 
land trust in their own people and country. After converting to Islam, they severed I 
their connections with other religions. It was for this reason the ruler of Merw 
[opened the doors of his city to the soldiers of the Islamic army. 

I Could it have been possible to bring the people of Oguz, such as Ddli Domrul an 
iDdli Garcar, to the straight path by any other method? 

I An apprentice after learning his master's skills can change masters. 

I Astudent after leaming the sciences of one school can enter another. 

I After becoming adult, young people can move and set up their own homes. 
I With the flag of Islam waving everywhere, the Oguz 

[people abolished their former religion and sought a new light which would 
I illuminate them. 

[Reading the book of Gorkut Ata raises the spirit, relieves the body, and calms the 
I soul. You will be exalted and close to your past. 

I What is told in the book of Gorkut Ata is the religion and his wise ideas and 
I advice to people. 


I The ideas of Gorkut Ata ruled over the land of T rkmens for five hundred years 
I After this, in the third period of our history, Seljuk Beg, from the lineage of 
I Gorkut Ata, became the rulel 


I The Seljuks reigned around Merw. This reign expanded towards the West, towards 
I Asia MinOL I 


iMany Seljuk T rkmen Principalities were founded during the Middle Ages. These 
I are: , 

-T rkmen Tuluni State 868-905 I 

-T rkmen Ihsid State 935-969 I 

- T rkmen Symirnia Caka Principality 1 08 1 - 1 098 I 
I - T rkmen DilmachoguUari Principality 1 085-1 1 92 I 

- T rkmen Danishmenthler Principality 1092-1 178 I 
I- T rkmen Oguz Yabgu State 7th and 9th Centuries I 

- T rkmen Karahanli State 840- 1212 I 

- T rkmen Ghazneli State 9 1 6- 1 1 87 I 


- The Great Seljuk-T rkmen Empire 1 040- 1 1 94 ^^^^^^^^^^^^H 



- T rkmen Syria Seljuk State 1092-1 1 17 






- T rkmen Kirman Seljuk State 1092-1307 



- T rkmen Anatolia Seljuk State 1092- 1 307 



- T rkmen HarezmShahlar State 1097-1231 



- T rkmen Yazirs 1 1th and 13th Centuries 



- T rkmen Salyrs 14th and 16th Centuries 



- T rkmen Akgo'unly State 1350-1502 




- T rkmen Garagoyunly State 1410-1468 



- The T rkmen- Ottoman Empire 1299-1922 



- T rkmen Memluk State (in Egypt) 1250-1323 



- T rkmen Halacis (in India) 1 202- 1 323 



- T rkmen Delhi Soltanate (in India) 1206-1414 



- T rkmen Tugluklular Principality (India) 1414-1555 



- T rkmen Safevids State 1501-1736 



- T rkmen Avshar Dynasty 1736-1796 



- T rkmen Kacar Dynasty 1 779- 1 924 



Many principalities survived as dependent or sem ndependent entities within the 
Seljuk State. The vacuum which existed after the end of the Seljuk State was 
fulfilled by Harzemsahlar State. 



- T rkmen Sallyklylar Principality 1092- 1202 



- T rkmen AhlatShahlar Principality 1 1 00- 1 207 



- T rkmen ArtukoguUari Principality 1 1 02- 1 048 




- T rkmen InaloguUar Principality 1 098- 1 1 83 

-T rkmen M ngflc kler Principality 1072-1277 

- T rkmen Begteginler Principality 1 146-1232 

- T rkmen CobanoguUari Principality 1 227- 1 309 

- T rkmen KaramanoguUari Principality 1256-1483 

- T rkmen InanyoguUari Principality 1 26 1 - 1 368 

- T rkmen SahipataoguUari Principality 1275-1341 
T rkmen PervaneoguUari Principality 1277-1322 
T rkmen MentesoguUari Principality 1 290- 1 3 82 

T rkmen CandaroguUari Principality 1299-1382 

T rkmen KaresioguUari Principality 1297-1360 

T rkmen Germiyanogultari Principality 1300-1423 

T rkmen HamidoguUari Principality 1 30 1 - 1 423 

T rkmen SaruhanoguUari Principality 1302-1410 

T rkmen AydinoguUari Principality 1308-1 426 

T rkmen TekeoguUari PrincipalitY 1 32 1 - 1 390 

T rkmen EretnaoguUari Principality 1335-1381 
T rkmen DulkadiroguUari Principality 1339- 1521 

T rkmen RamazanoguUari Principality 1325-1608 
T rkmen Doburcaturk Principality 1354-1417 


T rkmen Kadi Burhaneddin Ahmedi S. 1381- 1398 
It rkmen EsrefoguUari Principality 1326 
|T rkmen BarcemoguUari Principality 12th Century 


T rkmenTaceddinoguUari Principality 1348-1428 ^^^^H 

T rkmen YarlikoguUari Principality 12th Century 


- T rkmen EmiroguUari Principality 14th Century 

- T rkmen Boruler Atabegligi 1117-1154 

- T rkmen Zenniler Atabegligi 1 227- 1 259 

- T rkmen IlDe'nizler Atabegligi 1 1 46- 1 225 

- T rkmen Salyrtar Atabeghgi 1 147-1258 




If we pay close attention, we can see that the Oguz people at the beginning used similar names to the Seljuk; 
each clan took the name of their ruler. If we look at their dates of establishment and termination, it will be c] 
are small principalities founded just after the destruction of the Seljuks and Harzemsahs. Many of them wen 
Ottoman State by Osman Ghazi. 


In the third period of Ttirkmen history (in the third decade of the I Ithcentury), there occurred several new ar 
developments in our history. The Seljuk commanders Togrul Beg (993-1063) and (;agry Beg (991-1061) foi 

The other name of Cagry is Davud, the other name of Togrul is Muhammed. Both Togrul and (;agry Begs w 
foremost commanders. The metaphorical meaning of their names is eagle. If the spirit of the T rkmen is ac( 
Ififth period, then it must be 'eagle' in the third period. For this reason it was very normal for the T rkmen c( 
named in such way. 

Qagry and Togrul Begs were the sons of Mikhail. They were the grandchildren of Seljuk Beg. 




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il.Kt^ H 

Xb. Bahr^iq ^ 

di. MuhulHiDet 





XI. Mnhanq^L 


14 <^3flj^f An 

15. Kej- Hy. 

16. Ma!;a| U 



17. Key KwImC 

F The boundaries of the Seljuk State extended from the Great Wall of China to Egypt, Asia Minor and the Cai 
[his sons waged war against SamanoguUari, Ilek Hanate, and Mahmyt of the Gazneli State. 

"The Seljuks are from the Kinik clan of the Oguz people. In 1040 in front of the Dafidanakan citadel, 70km f 
they defeated Mahmyt of the Gazneli state from the lineage of Oguz. The state founded by the two brothers ; 
I this victory. 

' Akhutba (sennon) was delivered in the name of the two brothers in all lands under their control. Cagry Beg, 
"Soltan of Soltans", ascended the throne in the city of Merw; Togrul Beg ascended the throne in the city of f 
I time span, many places and cities such as Belh, Curcan, Taberistan, Harezm and then Cibal, Hemedan, Dina 
fcsfahan were conquered. 

'in 1055, Togrul Beg went to Baghdad and was declared Soltan in the city, which was under the control of th 
named "Soltan of the seven chmates" by the Caliphate. 

The land of the Great Seljuk Empire expanded greatly during the era of Alp Asian, Cagry Beg"s son. It start( 
^from tens of countries and principalities. 



Islamic Calendar Gregorian Calendar 

429-552 Rukneddin EbuTalib Togrul Beg 1308-1157 

429 Adudeddin Ebu yuca Alp Arslan 1038 

455 Celaleddin Ebul Feth Melik Shah 1063 


465 Nasreddin Mahmyt 1092 

487 Rukneddin Ebul Muzaffar Berkyarukl094 

498 Melik Shah 11 1104 

498 Giyaseddin Ebu Suca Muhammet 1 105 
511-552 Muizeddin Ebul Haris Sancar 1118-1157 

433-583 THE KIRMAN SELJUK STATE 1041-1187 

433 Imameddin Kara Arslan Kavurt Beg 1041 

465 Kirman Shah 1074 

467 Huseyin 1074 

467 Rukneddin Soltan Shah 1074 

477 Turan Shah 1085 

490 Iran Shah 1097 

494 Arslan Shah 1101 

536 Mugiseddin Muhammet 1 1141 

551 Muhyiddin Togrut Shah 1 156 

Bahrem Shah (the era of conflict) 

563 Arsian Shah 1 1 (the era of conflict) 1 168 

T rkan Shah (the era of conflict) 

583 Muhammet 1187 

487-511 SYRIAN SELJUK T RKMENS 1 094- 1117 

487 Tutus bin Alp Arslan 1094 

488 Ridvan bin Tutus (in Aleppo) 1095 
488-497 Dukak bin Tutus (in Damascus) 


'507 Ali Arslan Ahras bin Ridvan 1113 

508-511 Shah bir Ridvan 1114-1117 

51 1-590 IRAQI SELJUK TFTRKMENS 1 1 18-1 194 

5 1 1 Mugiseddin Mahmyt 1138 

,525 Giyaseddin Davut 11^1 ^^^^^^^^^ 


I < 


|526Togrull 1132 

528 Giyaseddin Mesud 1133 

547 Muineddin Melik Shah 1 152 

548 Muhammet 1153 
554 Suleyman Shah 1159 
556 Arslan Shah 1161 
573-590 Togrul 11 1177-1194 

470-700 RUM SELJUK T RKMENS 1077-1300 

(in Asia Minor) 

470 S leyman 1. Bin Kutalmis 1077 

479 (Basli-Baratlik) 1086 

485 KiUc Asian Davut 1092 

500 Melik Shah 1 1107 

5 10 Mesud 1 1116 

551 izeddin Kiliq Asian 11 1156 

584 Kutbeddin Melik Shah 1 1 1 188 

588 Giyaseddin Keyhusrev 1 1192 


597 Rukneddin Suleyman 11 1200 

600 Kilic Asian 1 1203 

601 Keyhusrev I (for the second term) 1204 
607 Izeddin Keykavus 1 1210 

616 Alaeddin Keykubat 1 1219 

634 Giyaseddin Keyhusrev 11 1236 

643 Izeddin Keykavus 11 1245 

655 Rukneddin KiUc Asian IV 1257 

666 Giyaseddin Keyhusrev 1 1267 

682 Giyaseddin Mesud 1 1 1283 

696-700 Alaeddin Keykubat 11 1296-1300 


(In Sivas, Kayseri and Malatya) 

While the Seljuk commanders were expanding their control in Asia Minor, Gumus, son of T rkmen commi 
conquered Cappadocia, Sivas, Kayseri and Malatya. 

Gumus defeated the Franks, who invaded Anatolia up to Malatya. The Danishmends became dependent on t 
State after a short time. 

,The Principality of Danishmendhler^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Circa 490-560 (Sivas, Kayseri, Malatya) Circa 1097-1165 
Muhammet I Gumus bin Tilu Banishment 
499 Gazi bin Gumus 1105 


529 Muhammet 1 1 bin Gazi 1 105 
537 Zunnun bin Muhammet 1 1 1 142 
Yagi (Yakup) Asian bin Gazi 
560 Ibrahim bin Muhammet 11 1 165 

THE ATABEG T RKMENS (12 Ih and 13'h C.) 

The education of the sons of commanders and important personalities had been aimed at teaching them sciei 
order to prepare them for public service since the era of Oguz Han. Those learned and experienced people w 
in this way then were called Atalik, Ataliklar, and Atabegs. 

The Atabegs started the education of the sons of Soltans at a very early age. Atabegs were carefully chosen t 

The children of the Soltans were taught foreign languages, military knowledge and command. The Soltans e 
could speak the languages of other nations, understand world literature, and utilise the technology of war. 

This education must have been the secret of how Seljuk Soltans with a smaller number of troops defeated gr 

From the start of the era of Oguz Han until the Middle Ages, the countries where the Oguz people lived wer 
science, wisdom, and education. Many students from China and the Byzantine Empire were sent here in ordi 
art of war and related knowledge. Those students who were taught by the Atabegs became masters 


everywhere with their wide worldview, knowledge, bodily health and their skill at command. 

With the growing weakness and decline of the Great Seljuk State, the Atabegs in their lands started declarin 
founding free principalities. 

Imameddin Zenni was the slave of the son of Meliksah, who was the third Soltan of the Seljuk State. The Se 
Azerbaijan came from the lineage of Mesud, who was the ruler of Iraq and came from the Gypjak Memluks. 
grandfather of the HarzemShahs was a servant at the palace of MelikShah. 


479-549 According to the Islamic Calendar 1 104-1 154 According to the Gregorian Calendar 
|AtabegTug educat ed the younger Seljuk princes. Soltan Tutus set Atabeg Tug free in retur n for his servic es 

his own son Bori as well. 

Atabeg Tug conquered Damascus. After this event, his dynasty started. After his death, he was replaced by 1: 

Islamic C. BORI TUJRKMENS Gregorian C. 

479-549 1104-1154 

497 Seyf hslam Zahireddin Tug 1 104 

522Tajim Ik Bori 1128 


526 Semsulmulk Ismail 1 132 

529 Sihabeddin Mahmyt 1 135 

533 Jemaleddin Muhammet 1139 

534-549 Mucireddin Abak 1 140-1 154 

(or Anaz 1, + 564) 

Bdri T rkmens Family Tree 


(Mesopotamian and Damascus Atabegs) 521-648 According to the Islamic Calendar 1 127-1250 According 1 

Atabeg Imameddin Zenni was the son of Hacip Aksungur, who was the slave of MelikShah. Aksungur becai 
between 1085-1094 (478-487). Upon the order of Tutus he rebelled against MelikShah. Zenni was appointee 
Mosul in 1 127 (521) upon the order of Tutus. Baghdad, Sincar, Cezire and Harran were under his control. L 
Aleppo and other cities related to Damascus in 522. Zenni, thanks to his 


struggle against the Crusades and his protection of the Mushm lands against the Crusades, was compared wi 
Zenni's death his lands were shared among his sons, the ruler of Damascus, Nureddin Mahmyt, and the ruler 
Mosul, Seyfetdin. Both of his sons at that time were waging war against the Crusaders. Later the Damascus 
However, other two segments appeared from Sincar and Cezire. Sincar came under the control of Eyjoibis ir 
others came under the control of Lulu, who was the vizier of the Mosul Zennis. None of them fell to the Mo 

Islamic Calendar Gregorian Calendar 
521-648 Zenni T rkmens 1127-1250 
(Mesopotamia and Damascus Atabegs) 

521-631 Musul T rkmen Atabegligi 1 127-1234 
521 Imamuddin Zenni (Also in Aleppo) 1 127 
541 Seyfeddin Gazi I It 1 146 
544 Kutbeddin Maudud 1 149 

565 Seyfeddin Gazi 11 1170 
576 Izzeddin Mesud 1 1180 
589 Nureddin Asian Shah 1 1 193 
607 Izzeddin Mesud 1 1 1211 

615 Nureddin Arslan Shah 111218 

616 Nasreddin Mahmyt 1219 
631 Bedreddin Lulu 1233 


657-660 Ismail bin Lulu 1259-1262 


541-577 Damascus T rkmen Atebegs 1 146-1 181 541 Nureddin Mahmyt bin Zenni 1 146 

569-577 Salih Ismail 1174-1181 

566-6 1 7 Sincar T rkmen Atabegligi 1 1 70- 1 220 

566 Imamuddin Zenni bin Maudud 1170 
594 Kutbeddin Muhammet 1197 

616 Imaduddin SahinShah 1219 
616-617 Mahmyt (or Omer) 1219-1220 

576-648 Cezire T rkmen Atabegs 1 180-1250 
576 Muizeddin Sancar Shah 1180 
605 Muizeddin Mahmyt 1208 
k6xx-648 Mesud 12xx-1250 


(Erbil T rkmen Atabegs) 

539-630 According to the Islamic Calendar 1 144-1233 According to the Gregorian Calendar 

In 1 144 (539), Imameddin Zenni appointed Zeyneddin Ali Kucuk Beg, one of the army commanders, as the 
losul. In 1 149 (544) he came under the control of the ruler of Sincar. Later he took over Harran, Tekrit, Erl 

r other lands as ruler. After Zeyneddin's death at Erbil in 1 168 (563), his son Muzafareddin Gbkboru, 


Zen ill Turkmens Familj' Tree 

i. Zenhi b, Ak sui^kar 

A. Mosul alaboglcri 

B. $am atabcglcri 

II.Cju/v I 

III, MaiidLid 

[, Mahmyi 
[L Ysmayyl 
S, Saiijar atabcgleri 

[V. Oazy tl V. Masut I 

(W, }cz\r& atahet^leri} VI. Arslan $a I 

I I 

a, Sanjar^a VII. Masul II 

b. Maiimyl 

I. Zefini 
2, Miiliammet 

Vlll. Arslan ^a 


3.Siilian^ah 4. Mahmyt 

IX. Mahmyi 

Bedrcddm Lulu (wezir IX) 
Un Mosul* Saujar and Jezire, 637-660) 


[Mosul da 



65 H) 










[because of his fear of being murdered, escaped to Harran. Consequently, Erbil entered the control of the you 



Zeyneddin, Zeyneddin Yusuf. Emir Mucahiddin Kaymaz supported him. After Yusuf s death in 1 190 (589), 
of Damascus and Mesopotamia appointed Muzaferridin G kbori as his successor in Erbil and Sahrazur. G 
cities and lands, which had been under his control, such as Harran, Ruhan (Eldessu) and Sumeysat, to his ne 
Omer. G kbori died in 1233 (630). Since he had no son, he requested that Erbil should be given to the Abb 

Islamic Calendar Gregorian 


539 Begteginler (Erbil Atabegleri) 144-1233 

539 Zeyneddin Ah Kucuk bin Begtegin 1 144 

563 Zeyneddin Yusuf bin Ali (in Harran) 1168 

563 Muzafereddin G kbori bin Ali (in Harran) 1 168 
586-630 Muzafereddin G kbori bin Ah 1 190-1233 
(in Erbil) 


(in Diyarbakir) 

495-712 1101-1312 

Islamic Calendar Gregorian Calendar 



Tutus, the ruler of Damascus, conquered Jerusalem and appointed one of his most trustworthy commanders, 
governor of the city. 


'Sokmen and Ilgazi, the sons of Artuk, were the victors in the war that they waged against the Ruler of Palesi 
Ilgazi replaced their father in 1091. 

In 1 101, the Seljuk Soltan Muhammet appointed Ilgazi as the governor of Baghdad. In the same year, Sokmi 
Diyarbakir as the commander of the Hisn-i Keyf fortress. Sokmen in the next few years annexed Mardin to ] 
Mardin was given to Sokmen's brother Ilgazi. Consequently Artuklular prevailed as two clans in Hisn-i Key 

Artuklular (Artuklus) was recorded in history as a generation with a great respect for science. Artuklular hac 
contributions to the development of science. 

Gregorian Calendar 

495-629 A. Hisn Keyf Artuklular 1101-1231 

495 Muineddevle Sokmen 1 1 101 

498 Ibrahim 1104 

circa 502 Rukneddevle Davud 1 108 

[circa 543 Fahreddin Kara Asian 1 148 
570 Nureddin Muhammet 1 174 
581 Ku tbeddin ^-^— ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

[597 Nasreddin Mahmyt 1200 

' 619-629 Rukneddin Maudud 1222-1231 

502-7 1 2 B . Mardin Artuk T rkmens 1108-1312 


Islamic Calendar 

502 Mecnmeddin Ilgazi 1108 
516 Husameddin Demir Tas 1 122 
547 Necmeddin Alp 1152 
572 Kutbeddin Ilgazi 1 1 1 176 
580 H sameddin Yuluk Arslan 1 176 

circa 597 Nasreddin A-rtuk Arslan Mansur 1200 

637 Necmeddin Gazi I Seyit 1239 

658 Kara Arslan Muzaffer 1260 

circa 691 Semseddin Davut 1292 

693 Necmeddin Gazi 11 Mansur 1294 

712 Imaduddin Ali Alp Mil 1312 

765 Ahmet Mansur 1363 

769 Mahmyt Salih 1367 

769 Davut Muzaffer 1367 

778 Mecdeddin Isa Zahir 1376 

809-811 Salih 1406-1408 


493-604 According to the Islamic Calendar 

1 1 10-1207 According to the Gregorian Calendar 


Sokmen-el Kutbi was the slave of Kutbeddin Ismail, 

who was a Seljuk T rkmen and the ruler of the Azerbaijani city of Maranda. His name originates from this 

(493), Sokmen-el Kutbi took the city of Helat in Armenia from Merwaniler. The city of Helat was under the 


Artyk Turkmen^ Family Tree 



(B. Mardiade) 


L Siikmaii 1 


Su ley man 

5] 5-5 1 7) 

Ih Ybn^yym 111 Dawul 

[V, Qara Arslan 


Beiek Yakuty^ Aly | 

(Anda, 497 (ManinftJe) 








a. Abu-13ekr V. Muhammet 
(5«l-tak. 600) 

(tak. 600-620) 

VL Sukman Jl 


VTI. Mahmyt 2,TeymJrdaj 

VII L Mau'dud 3. Alpv 

4. n-Gazv II 

5.^uluk Arslaii 6. Arlyk A rs I an 



S. Oara Arslin 

9, Dawul 
11. Aly 

10. Git^vil 


12. Salyh 

13, Alimel 


14, Vlahmvt 

16. ha 

1 5, Daw lit 

7, Sttlyh 

Sokmen-el Kutbi's descendants until 1207, that is,, the conquest of the Eyyubis. 

Islamic Calendar 

493-604 ErmenShahs (Ahlat-Shahs) 


493 Sokmen-elKutbi 1100 

506 Zahireddin Ibrahim Sah Enuen 1112 

521 Ahmet 1127 

522 Nasreddin Sokmen 1 1 1 128 
579 Seyfeddin Begdemir 1183 
589 Bedreddin Aksungur 1 193 
594 Mansur Muhammet 1 198 
603-604 Izeddin Balaban 1206-1207 

Gregorian Calendar 

Turkmen Shahs in Ermenistan (Family Tree) 





3. Ahmet 

4.SukiTian II 


S.Balban 6.Ak sunkar 


ILDENIZLILER (Azerbaijan T rkmen Atabegs) 
(450-560 Islamic Calendar 1097-1 165 Gregorian Calendar 


7. Muhammet 


Semseddin Ilde'niz was originally a Gypjak. He was great man of science. Thanks to his successful years as 
ability to educate Soltans from among his sons, he was held in high esteem by all. 

Ilde'niz was an Atabeg who gave great importance to teaching his students political knowledge in state admi 



[added Azerbaijan to his control and he enhanced his position in the region. Since his son Muhammed was n( 
' current borders, he conquered the Iraqi Seljuk lands. 

After Muhammet, his brother Kizil Arslan, "the emir of emirs," became the new ruler. However he was kilk 
the independence of his lands. His two relatives who then declared themselves rulers after his death were als 

SALYR T RKMENS (The Persian T rkmen Atabegs) 543-686 Islamic 1 148-1287 Gregorian 

After emigrating to Horasan, Salyr, after many campaigns became a commander in the army of Togrul Beg, 
Seljuk State. Togrul Beg appointed him as a commander in his own army. In 1 148 (543) Sungur b. Mevdud 
after conquering the Persian province, enhanced the Salyrs' rule there. This rule of Salyr atabegs lasted half j 
lost the war 


ncrainst HarezmShah Muhammed. (p. 128) He handed over Istahr and Eshkevan to HarezmShahs. As a man 
Ebubekir felt the forthcoming danger of the Moguls and sent an ambassador to Ogedey Han to declare his d( 
loyalty to the Han. The last ruler from the lineage of Salyr was Abis Hatun, 11, Sa'd's daughter who was the 
the death of Seljuk Shah. Abis 

Hatun married Mengu Timur, the son of Hulag . The world- 
renowned Poet Sadi was brought up in Atabeg Ebu Bekir's 

543-686 Salyr T rkmens 1 148-1287 (The Persian Atabegs) 
543 Sungur 1148 
557 Zenni 1162 
^591 Sa'd 1195 
623 Ebu Bekir 1226 
658 Muhammet 1260 
660 Muhammet Shah 1262 
660 Seljuk Shah 1262 
662-686 Abis Hatun 1263-1287 

Salyr Tiirkmens Family Tree 



1 .Sunkar 





— ~-j 



4. Sagt 

7.Mutiammet ^a 

8. Seljuk §a 


The founder and the commander of this Soltanate was Ebu Tahir Atabeg. Ebu Tahir with the Salyr T rkmei 
Ithe Great Lurystan in 1 148 (543). The areas under Ebu Tahir's rule expanded rapidly, after he had captured I 
offered to him by the Mogul Han. Ebu Tahir later took Isfahan, after the death of Afrasyyap I Argu. Howeve 
this after a short while. This small state lasted till 1339 (740) and its capital was Idaj. Some historians also n 
1 1 took Suster, Huweyza and Basra under his domination. Another family of these Atabegs ruled over Smal 
end of the 

12th century to the beginning of the 16th century. 

543-740 Lurystan (Hazarasp) Atabegs 1148-1339 

543 Ebu Tahir bin Muhammed 1118 

circa 600 Nasreddin Hazarasp circa 1203 

circa 650 Takla circa 1252 

circa 657 Semseddin Alp Argu circa 1259 

circa 673 Yusuf Shah I circa 1274 

circa 687 Afrasyap 1 1288 

696 Nasreddin Ahmed 1296 

733 Rukneddin Yusuf Shah 1333 

740 Muzaffereddin afrasyap 11 1339 

756 Semseddin Hushen (or Nuraliverdi) 1355 

circa 780 Ahmed circa 1387 

circa 815 Ebu Seyit 1408 

circa 820 Huseyin circa 1417 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 

827 Giyaseddin 1423 

Luristan (Hazarasp) Tiirkmens Family Tree 

K Abu Tahyr 
2. Hazaras p 

T \ 

S.Yusup §a I 

6. Afrasyyap 1 

4. Alp-Argu 

7. Ajhmet 
8. Yusup §a II 

9. Afrasyyap II 


470-628 Islamic calendar 1077-1231 Gregorian 



The HarzemShahs were the descendants of Anu tegin, who was first employed as a servant by Bilge Tegin 
a member of the palace staff during MelikShah's reign. As a result of his services to MelikShah and the state 
governor to Harezm. Among his descendants, the first person to declare his independence was Atsyz, whose 
the Soltan Sanjar in 1338 (533). However, he was punished for it and driven off from Koneurgenj. After his 
granted forgiveness, he was re-assigned to his former position. He gained his full independence in 1 156 and 
up to Jend along the river of Seyhun. 



Later, Soltan Tekey included Horasan Rey and Isfahan into his land in 1 193-1 194 589-590). His son, Alaedc 
fought fierce battles with the Gurlu T rkmens in Horasan and in consequence conquered a great majority oi 
and also took Buhara and Samarkand later. After campaigns on the land of Gur Han of Garahytay, he took tl 
fought bloody battles against Jengis Han but was defeated and later took refuge and died on an island in the 

His son, Jelaleddin, continued his resistance against the Mongol expansion and proved himself a hero unpre^ 
was the first to defeat the Mongols who had been invincible until then. However, internal conflicts within hi 
prevented him from reaching his goals. After his stay for two years in India and many interesting adventures 
established his sovereignty in Azarbayjan from 1225-123 1. There are many commentaries about his ultimat 
which says he was killed by a Kurdish person. Though the HarezmShah state once stretched to the same bor 
that of the Great Seljujks, it did not survive. 

470-628 HAREZMSAHS 1077-1231 

circa 470 Anustegin circa 1077 

490 Kutbeddin Muhammet 1097 

522 Atsiz 1128 

551 Il-Arslanll56 

568 Soltan Mahmyt (-1-589) 1172 


568 Tekes 1172 

596 Alaeddin Muhammet 1200 

617-628 Jelaleddin Mengubirdi 1220-1231 

Konejirgeng Turkmen Shahs in Konelirgc 

(Family Tree) 

1 . Anu§ teg in 

2.Kutbeddin Muhammet 


4, II Arslan 

5. Soltan §a 


f . 

7.AIaeddin Nasyreddin Yunus han (Reyde) Ta 
Muhammet Malik han A 

(Horasanda +593) (Kiirdust 

Arslan §a 

Gursangy +619 


§ir §a +627 



619-703 1222-1303 

Barak Hacip, who was one of the servants of Alaeddin of Koneurgenj (HarezmShah), declared his rule in Ki 

They came from Garahytays and established their rule just after Jengiz Han attacked Koneurgenj. The Mogu 

[acknowledged Barak's rulership and gave him the title of Gutlug Han. Thereafter, Gutlug leaders always ren 



Moguls. Two of the leaders married Mogul wives, and the daughter of the last ruler married Muhammed, th( 
Muzaffars in Iran. 

619-703 Gutlug Han T rkmens (In Kirman) 1222-1303 

619 Barak Hacip Kutlug Han 


632 Rukneddin Hojatilhak 1235 

650 Kutbeddin Muhammet 1252 

655 Kutlug Hatun 

(Kutbeddin Muhammet's widow) 1257 

681 Jelaleddin Suyurgatmis 1282 

693 Safveddin Soltan-Hatun 1293 

694 Jelaleddin Muhammet 1295 

701-703 Kutbeddin Sah Jihan 1301-1303 



SapttrmjTCit TUrksntriSasy 

Gutlug han Tiirkmens Family Tree 



3. Kutbeddin 4. Gutlu 

Hajjaj soltan 

5. Jelaleddin 

6, Safwetedi 


8. Kutbeddin 
Muhammet b. Muzaffaryn gyzy 


11 han BayduT 

14th - 19th Centuries ^^^^^^^^^ 
It is widely known that the atabegs and the principalities after the demise of the Great Seljuks Soltanate rule 
tiran to Mesopotamia and Syria. As they were unable to establish very powerful sovereignties or Soltanates t 
by the Monguls and later helped produce the Ottoman dynasty, which would become the inheritors, to the S( 
Togrul Beg, Alp Arslan and MelikShah were the rulers of a powerful state. After MelikShah's death, his son 


Berkyaryk and Muhammed Tapar, started disputes and clashes between them, and that led to the establishm( 
of the new small states. Only during the reign of Soltan Sanjar did the state manage to reorganize itself and 1 
and vitality till his death. Soltan Sanjar's reign remained limited to Horasan. However, other Seljuks states c 
existence in Kirman, Irak, Syria and Anatolia as independent states. 

The Ottoman Empire 
^ (The Ottoman T rkmen's State in Turkey) 

Islamic Calendar 699 Gregorian 1299 



Fin 1299 Osman Ghazi founded the Ottoman State, which lasted 622 years, 
during which 36 Soltans reigned. He was bom in 1258, the third son of ErTogrul 
Ghazy, who was one of the Turkmen Begs (principals). Due to external, hostile 
pressures, the Turkmens who settled in Sogut, Anatolia, in 1277 asked for help 
from ErTogrul Ghazi, who lived in their homeland, Horasan. As a result of 
meetings held in Merw, ErTogrul Ghazi decided to go to Anatolia and to support 
Turkmens there with his 400 horsemen. These 400 horsemen were composed of 
the atabegs and the cavalry who had completed their fighting and commanding 
training with flying colours and who were able to fuUfill the will of Oguz Han, 
who had said, "Each and every Turkmen soldier is equal to one thousand 

Osman Ghazi was one of the atabegs who received training in fighting and 
commanding and would establish a very powerful state in Turkey after 20 years. 



Islamic calendar 780-874 Gregorian 1378-1469 

The Turkmen clans and tribes, which carried the name of Garagoyunly up to the 
end of 14th century, were named after their flags which had a figure of a black 
sheep. The Garagoyunly Turkmens captured the land from the Van Lake, in the 
eastern part, to the western part of Turkey. They established a Hanate which 
included Armenia and Azarbaycan in its territory by concluding an agreement 
with Soltan Huseyin. 

Garayusuf, the second ruler of the Garago'unlys, was defeated and expelled by 
Timur (Tamerlane) a couple of times but he managed to return. After the death 
of Timur, Garayusuf recaptured in 1405 (807) all the lands he had formerly 
ruled. He took the Jelayirs under his rule in 141 1. However, in 1469 (874) the 
Garagoyunly Turkmens accepted the rule and sovereignty of the Akgoyunly 
Turkmens, whose leader was then Uzun Hasan. 

780-874 Garagoyunly T rkmens 1378-1469 
780 Gara Muhammet 1378 
circa 790 Gara Yusup circa 1388 
802 Timur's Dechne 1400 
808 Gara Yusup (conflict) 1405 
1 823 Isgender 1420 __^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

841 Jahanshah 1437 
872-874 Hasan All 1647-1469 


Islamic calendar 780-908 
nGregorian 1378-1502 


The Akgojoinly (Whitesheep) Turkmens captured the land of their rivals, the 
Garagoyunly Turkmens in Diyarbakir and Azarbayjan. Their reign lasted only 
30 years, because Shah Ismail, the Safavid ruler, defeated the Akgo'unlys in a 
battle in 1502 (907) and ended their rule. 

Islamic Calender Gregorian 


780- 908 The Akgo'unly Ttirkmens 1378-1502 

780Garay 1 kOsmanl378 
809 Hemze 1406 
848 Jahangir 1444 
871 Uzyn Hasan 1466 

883 Halyl 1478 

884 Yakup 1479 

896 Baysunkar 1490 

897 R stem 1491 

902 Ahmet 1496 

903 Myrat 1497 

905 El went 1499 

906 Muhammet 1500 

907-908 Myrat (conflict) 1501-1502 


(the Gaznalys in Afganistan and Punjab) 
Islamic calendar 351-582 Gregorian 962-1186 

Gaznaly Mahmyt, who was the son of Sebuktegin of the Gaya Boyu (tribe) of 
the Turkmens, was one of the great rulers in Islamic history. He accomplished 
great services for Islam in spreading and protecting Islam. Gaznaly Mahmyt 


first defeated his own brother, who had risen against him, and he brought Eciz 

Hukumdar of the Samanids under his rule. He got the Abbasid Cahph in 
Baghdat to acknowledge his rulership of Horasan and Gazna and to declare by 
written decree that the Caliph himself was no longer the sovereign in those 

Gaznaly Mahmyt made an agreement with the Ilek Han and the weakened 
Samanids and thus made joint military expeditions with that powerful army to 
India. He enterd India seventeen times between the years 1001 and 1026. He 
expanded his borders, captured well beyond Kashmir and Punjab, and added 
Kanuj and Mutturun in 1018, and Anhalwar - the capital of Gujarat - and 
Somnat into his lands in 1024 (415). With all these campaigns, he not only 
became rich but also aimed to eliminate robbery, pillage, injustice and idol- 
worshipping. He was renowned as the 'idol-bringer down'and returned to his 
land with wealth and treasure accumulated from those temples. The effect of 
these expeditions on India was enormous: Punjab completely submitted to his 
rule and Gujarat conceded the amount of the tax to be paid to Mahmyt. Apart 
from in India, he also ran military campaigns against Ilek Han and his land, and 
captured Gur in 1010, Murgap in 1012, and Samarkand and Buhara in 1016. 
Towards the last years of his reign, he realised that Togrul and Cagry Begs, 
whom he had protected, were starting to become a threat to him. Togrul and 
Cagry Begs remained loyal to and dependent on the Gaznaly State till 1027 
(418). After the death of Mahmyt, their names become heard louder and more 

Mahmyt's interest in science, literature and art and his patronage of scholars and 
scientists were no less than his 


statesmanship and commandership. He hosted and protected poets, such as 
Firdewsi, in his palace. His land, particularly the city Gazna, was far ahead and 
superior to others with respect to its mansions, mosques, water canalets, ygation 
networks and facilities needed for health and social life. 

His land stretched from Lahore to Samarkand and to Isfahan. However, within a 
short period he started to lose the provinces in the North. A few years later, in 
1040 during the battle of Da danakan near Merw, Mahmyt's son Masud was 
defeated by the Seljuk Turkmens and in consquence, their sovereignty and 
ownership of Horasan came to an end. 

Islamic Calender Gregorian Calender 
351-582 Gaznaly T rkmens 962-1186 

351 Alp Ruler 962 

352 Yshak 963 

355 Bilge Ruler 966 
.362 Piri 972 ^^^^^^_ 

366 Sbb k Ruler 977 

387 Ysmay' YI 997 

388 Mahmyt (yeminedd wle) 998 
421 Muhammet (Jelaledd wle) 1030 
421 Masut I (Nasreddin-Ala) 1030 

432 Maudud (yyhabadd wle) 1041 

440 Aly Abul-Hasan (Behaaddbwle) 1049 

444 Togrul 1053 

444 Farruhzat (Jemalladd wle) 1053 

451 Ybrayym (Zahyradd wle) 1059 

492 Masut I (Alaadd wle) 1099 

508 yirzat (Kemaledd wle) 1 1 14 

509 Arslan (Soltanedd wle) 1115 



5 1 1 B hrem Shah (Yeminedd wle) 1118 

547 Hysrow Shah (Muyzzedd wle) 1 152 

^555-582 Hysrow Mdlik (Tdqedd wle) 1 160-1 186 


(in Afganistan and India) 

Islamic calendar 543-612 Gregorian 1 148- 1215 

There had always been a few independent Hanates in the province of Ur, a 
mountainous place between Herat and Gazna. The Gur Turkmens had abode in 
the citadel of Firuzkuh. Gaznaly Mahmyt captured this city in 1010 (401). It was 
Muhammed Suri who was ruling there at that time. Suri's grandfathers were 
ruling over Firushuh and Bamiyan when the Gaznalys reign was at its most 
powerful. The Gaznalys and Gurs also inter-married. However, Kutbettin 
Muhammed of the Gurs killed his own father-in-law at the 


behest of the Gaznalys. Upon this, Suri's brother conquered Gazna in 1 148 to 
take revenge for what happened. A year later Behram Shah recaptured the city 
and tortured Seyfettin Suri to death. This ruthless act perpetrated for the second 
time against their family strengtheed the will for revenge in Aleaddin Huseyin, 
the brother of Seyfetin Suri. Aleaddin attacked Gazna, set fire to it and put all to 
,death by the sword. For this reason he is known as, "the man who set the world 

on fire." He left Gazna in ruins in utter disgust and hatred for Gur. Aleaddin died 
in Gur in 1 161 shortly after he was taken captive by the Seljuks Soltan Sanjar. 
Around this time, the Turkmens-Guzs (Oguzs) took Afghanistan and eventually 
destroyed the states of Gur and Gazna. 



Within the last two hundred years the Turkmens have been accused of being 
robbers, raiders, and pillagers, and from the 1930's this was changed to invaders. 
These are only the accusations of those who wish to raid and invade the 
Turkmen land and of those who cannot find any other excuse to do so. My High 
and Beloved People, we should learn to take lessons, to draw morals, from the 
past. For this to be so, the Ruhnama in your hand will support you! 

My respected people! 

The historical road of the Turkmen Nation is one of glory and difficulty. This 
road is the one which has led us to independence and enthused us -Or the 
Golden Century of the Turkmen. I have briefly drawn your attention to the 
history of our ancestors. We should learn about our past and the states 
established in the past very well. History is for us the most valuable school of 
experience. And, what falls to us is the duty to learn our sublime historical 
Jvalues and to protect 

our moral values. 



My Beloved T rkmen People! 
My Dear Turkmen Nation! 

Living as a nation is a great pleasure. The most important condition of being a 
distinct nation is to be -an independent country. T rkmens have yearned to become 
an indivisible nation for the last seven or eight centuries. Becoming an independent 
nation gave us the opportunity to attain the centuries-old aspiration of T rkmens. 
Since the T rkmens attained this independent and neutral nationhood, it has become 
necessary to write this book in order to review our heritage, which comes from the 
Prophet Noah, and to support our life in the golden century, golden spirit and golden 

In 1889, stone tablets and epitaphs, on which there were ancient writings, were 
discovered on the shores of the Orhon River in Siberia. The scholars studied them 
and concluded in the year 1893 that the script used in these epitaphs was the old 
T rkmen alphabet and the texts were written in the old T rkmen Ian uage. Thus, 
through these studies we came to know the old T rkmen alphabet that is composed 
of 38 letters. There is a sentence in the epitaphs: "Oh Oguz Rulers! Halt and hsten! 
Who can disturb your tradition and your country unless Allah annihilates us or the 
earth splits?" This indicates the continuance of the Oguz, that is the T rkmens, and 
emphasizes our wish to be and remain independent. The saying "as written on stone" 
illustrates this fact much better. 

Ihave thought over my past many times. I have thought 



a great deal about writing this book, Ruhnama. Every time it was as if the souls of 

Oguz Han, Gorkut Ata and Gbrogly were appealing to me. The soul of Oguz Han 


"Write! The place where your nation came into existence will be the route; the place 
which your nation favours will be the territory; the wishes of your nation will be 

The soul of Gorkut Ata said: 

"Write! The things that the nation favours, and the things that are written on the fate, 
mind, and heart of the nation are sacred." 

The soul of G rogly said: 

"The nation that travels a straight road is happy. The happiness of the nation is the 
basis of the brave preservation of the country and the territory. Today, the happiness 
of your nation is in your hands. Saparmyrat, show the way of the golden life to the 
T rkmen nation. This will be your task; this will be your way." 
The soul of our father Magtymguly said: 
Souls and hearts beat together, 
The army marches, soil and stone dissolve. 

If the food is prepared and served at one table. 

The future of T rkmen is bright and prosperous. 

My guiding souls, my father and my mother, said: 

"Allah selected the four heroes of the T rkmens -Oguz Han, Gorkut Ata, G rogly 
and Magtymguly- as the inheritors of the prophets. Today, Allah the Great has 
designated you as 


their inheritor. Son, devote your life to maintaining the unity of the T rkmen nation 
and to sustaining the golden life for them." 

I Every human lives with hopes and desires. 

Iwant T rkmens to live the golden life, in the golden spirit, with pride and unity. 

Iwant you to live with the qualities of unity, cooperation, charity, and high moral 

Ihave prepared Ruhnama for the T rkmen nation to be a light and a guide on its 
journey towards its goal. 

All T rkmens, not wasting the breath bestowed by Allah, should devote their 
energy, effort, and capabilities to their nation and their country in order to provide 
our nation with a life of well-being. Then, there will be no target that cannot be 
reached, and no task that cannot be accomplished. 

Sometimes, I wonder whether I feel too proud of my nation, or whether my eyes are 
dazzled by the light of the word "Ttirkmen," or whether I am enchanted by the magic 
of the word "T rkmen." However, so far human beings have never been damaged by 
affection. Nobody has ever been injured by his or her love of the nation. Be afraid of 
1^ those who do not lov e their nati on. If ev erybody likes their own nation , then the 



nations will like each othel Those who do not like their own nations cannot like other 
nations. The word "T rkmen," lies in my bosom like a beloved baby warmed by the 
heat of my heart. 

In this word can be seen the proper pride of a people who have been driving their 
horses on at full speed for five 


hundred years, as well as their natural modesty and the warmth of their hearts. 

This word, like an enchanted meal, gathered our people around itself and made us 
friends, united us and, thanks to this word, we became a whole. 

Ttirkmen, the name of our nation. 


Our fathers consecrated this word as a flag and they fought bravely against its 
greatest enemies. This word was an inseparable comrade to them even when they 
fell, a spear lodged in their breasts. 

Feelings of duty and responsibility and action underlie the love of the nation. 

Our nation prevented deviations from unity and collaboration even in severe 
conditions by the saying, "Do not leave your nation even if you are killed." One feels 
sorrow for the peoples of the world who have not yet achieved nationhood; and one 
feels twice that sorrow for those who leave the path of the nation and consider this 
great idea, the nation, to be merely the detritus of history. 

Our nation is the greatest source of pride to us! We live to fulfil our due to this great 
word; even if we die, we desire to die as T rkmens. 

If you live a wretched and dissolute life, whether near or far away, they do not say, 
"That man is like that," but they say, "That nation is hke that." 

If you live an honourable and excellent life, whether near or far away, they say, 
"That man is T rkmen! They are the nation that directed the course of history." 


T rkmens! The mud thrown at you is also thrown at me; and my cleanness, my 
brightness is also yours. 

T rkmens! All my love is for you; all the pain is for me. 

Sometimes I become extremely downcast, thinking, "If the savage army of Genghis 
^ Han had not annihilat ed the O guz inhabiting the regions of K ne rgenq Mar u- 

yahu-jahan (Merw), y hrislam, Abywerd, Amul, Zem, Dehistan, and their 
prosperous towns with great populations; if the hbraries with thousands of books, the 
"homes of science" had not been destroyed and burnt, then now, T rkmenistan 
would be one of the most prominent and strongest states in the world in its politics, 
its economy, its civilization and science. 

The T rkmen nation has been able to survive the ruthless cruelties and destructions 
of Alexander the Great, Genghis Han, Tey'mir Agsak (Tamurlane) and other invaders 
■ and managed to transmit its sacred values, name, honour, traditions and civilization, 
the legacies of Oguz Han, to the glorious days of the contemporary era. 

Our great T rkmen nation overcame those terrible disasters and troubles by the 
guidance of the word "T rkmen." Being T rkmen has saved the nation from the 

Thus, how can I not be proud of my beloved nation? 

My Beloved T rkmen Nation ! 

Your origin lies in Oguz Han. Twenty-four tribes, forty families constitute the 
essence of the T rkmen nation. In the course of history, some of these tribes have 
dispersed across the world and preserved their national self-awareness by means of 
forming new groups. However, today, when T rkmenistan has become an 
independent state, tribal rela- 


tions are detrimental to the unity of the T rkmen nation. My 

beloved T rkmen nation, it is on this issue that I am addressing you now. 

The T rkmen nation has been reborn as a whole. To have an independent and 
impartial state is only possible by the unity and indivisibility of the nation. 

The idea of tribe is temporary; it constitutes a lower stage in the progress towards 
national integrity. In the modem era, this idea causes the integrity of the nation to 
degenerate. Let us give up the idea of tribe from now on. Debates on tribes should be 
things of the past; each T rkmen should make an effort not to turn to tribal debates. 
All the T rkmens are brothers. 

Beloved people, the one who will carry the T rkmen to the future is the T rkmen 
himself. Today, there are more than 22 million T rkmens in the world, and there are 
5,500,000 T rkmens living in our independent and impartial country. I especially 
want to make clear here that there are people living in our territory from more than 
forty different nations; they are living in peace, happiness and unity with the 
_T rkmens. They cooperate with the T rkmens and work in different fields of , 

production. Uzbeks constitute two percent of our population and Russians constitute 
one percent. Five percent of our population is comprised of various other nations. 

The T rkmen sees other nations as his own brothers, his own friends. Racism cannot 
find a place among T rkmens. T rkmens respect the languages, the religions and 
the traditions of other nations. The rights and responsibilities of all citizens living in 
T rkmenistan are equal before the law of the T rkmen state. 


There are sacred values and wonders which have been wrought by the T rkmen 

nation in the course of our long history. 

The dining table is assumed to be holy by the T rkmen nation. The dining table is 
the sign of unity and it gathers the T rkmens around itself. The dining table is the 
pledge of the T rkmen. When the T rkmens are asked, "Who is Han?" they answer, 
"The dining table." 


Ttirkmens gather with their brothers, friends and relatives around a dining table. 
When a T rkmen wants to marry a girl, he takes a bundle with a loaf of bread to the 
girl's family. If her family accepts the boy as a son-in-law, then they take the bread 
from the bundle and send it back with a new loaf. 

There is a belief among the T rkmens that when they go on a short or long journey 
they should take a piece of bread with them; that bread becomes a comrade to them 
and brings them safely home again. 

Today, we have attained the understanding, the comprehension, and the unity that 
Gorkut Ata desired. 

Today, we have reached the state and statehood that G rogly Beg desired. 


Today, we have reached the unity, the integrity and the collaboration that our Father 

Magtymguly desired. 


Today, T rkniens have gathered around a dining table within the independent state. 

We T rkmens have reached the desires of our ancestors. 

T rkmens, know the value of this destiny. T rkmens, trust in Allah and preserve 
these days. 


Ihave home many difficulties throughout my life. I grew up feeling the absence of 

my father, who struggled and died for the sake of the homeland; I have always felt 

^ honoured by the name of my father. A sudden and terrible earthquake destroye d our 

home and separated me from my brothers, who were hke my eyes, and my mother, 
who was my guide in hfe. Just as G rogly came into the hght of this world from the 
grave, I also came to this world from the ruins. 

When I see my father's contemporaries, I remember my father and live the feeling of 
captivity; when I see the contemporaries of my mother, I remember my mother and 
live the feeling of orphanhood. I have lived the meaning of the saying, "Captive 
without father and orphan without mother," and known Allah, the Supreme, as my 
sole protector. 

When I leamt to read and write, I realized that my homeland was a captive and an 
orphan like me. I have lived in the bright world of the Creator along with my sorrows 
stemming from this reality throughout my life. Eventually, I began to search for the 
souls of my ancestors through the pages of books as a captive searches for the 
homeland or as an orphan searches for his close relatives. 

Thus, when I was just a small child, 1 leamt who the T rkmen is and what the 
homeland is. I have consoled myself with the epigram, which is firstly recorded in 
my heart and then in my diary, "The one who bears the sufferings of the world earlier 
can understand the realities of the world earlier." In the course of time, I have 
realized that those injuries which were done to my heart have been removed. 

* In the T rkmen version of the epic of Karolin, it is explained that GiSrogly came 
from the grave where his mother had been buried. G r means grave and the name of 
Gbrogly derives from this root. 

154 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Saparm^rat TUrkmenba^y 


^^ S^^^ ^f -V 

^1 ^^.>-t-^^^' 


Handwritten copy of Riihnama belonging to our 
Beloved Leader Sapartnyral Turkmenba^y the Great 

I understood the nature of human beings earher. On the one side, there was the man 
who was pleasant and cheerful. I considered this man good and was pleased with his 

words. On the other side, there was the man who was bad-tempered and angry. The 
words of this man were hke poisoned arrows to me. When I attempted to beat them, 
my hands refused to do it; when I attempted to swear at them, my tongue refused to 
do it. So the only thing that I could do was to digest those words which were like 
I poisoned arrows. 

G rogly has opened new horizons in my life; there was justice in his world. I have 
understood that there can be nothing greater than justice. 

Iwas separated from my homeland, which I love very much, when I began to study in 
Leningrad. By going to the libraries there, I immersed myself in the depths of history 
so that I felt as if I was at the heart of my homeland. During my education in 
Leningrad, I leamt the five thousand year history of my people by reading every 
single line about it. 

When you go for a long journey, your mother prepares your food. 1, however, have 
no mother, so I took the word "T rkmen" in place of food. 


When you go for a long journey, your father sends you with his blessings; 1, 
however, have no father, so I have taken the blessings of my homeland on my 


When I considered my situation, I understood that I was not an orphan! How can 
someone be an orphan if he has a father like Oguz Han, a teacher like Gorkut Ata, an 
elder brother like G rogly, an advisor like Magtymguly? 

The rise of the T rkmen commanders Togrul and qagry Begs annoyed the Soltan of 
the T rkmens, Gaznaly Mahmyt, 



who had conquered huge territories in the East and West, including India. He called 
one of the Hans of the Seljuk Ttirkmens in order to learn about them. Ysra'yl Han 
started out towards the headquarters of the Soltan with ten thousand riders. The 
Soltan immediately sent a message to the Han and indicated that he had not 
summoned support but was only calling the Han to meet. Then Ysrayyl came to the 
meeting with three hundred of his riders. The Soltan cheerfully welcomed him and 
then asked: 

'Tf we needed military support, how many soldiers would you send us?" 

Ysrayyl took an arrow from his quiver and said: 

'Tf you send this arrow, then an army consisting of thirty thousand soldiers will come 
from the Balkans." 



"If we needed more than that?" 

"Then, if you send this arrow, ten thousand more riders will also come." 

"If we needed many more than that?" 

"If you send this arrow towards the Balkan Mountains, then an army of a hundred 
thousand soldiers will come." 

"Yes, but if we needed a greater force than that?" 
Then Ysrayyl gave another arrow and said: 

"If you send this to T rkmenistan, then an army of five hundred thousand soldiers 
will come." 

Only a commander of a T rkmen tribe was capable of forming an army of five 
hundred thousand soldiers. This was a great army. Think how great was a nation 
which could form such a huge army. 


The Gijrogly Era, the third era in T rkmen history, was the era when the world 
heard the reputation of the T rkmen nation. 

By means of preserving its national characteristics, after many years the T rkmen 
nation has succeeded to great spiritual power. By building upon this historical 
foundation and the experiences of the past, we have managed to establish stability 
and well-being in our country in the transition period. Within a short period of time, 
the regulations and constitution of the organization of the national state have been 
prepared and implemented; the required background for our foreign relations has 
been achieved. 

Our state structure is harmonious with our national characteristics, the traditions of 
the T rkmen people, and the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" of the 
United Nations. In all of our policies we consider the national interests of 
T rkmenistan on the one hand and the stability of the region and the strengthening 
of international security on the other. We always see that all of these are indivisible 

We have huge resources. We want to draw maximum benefit and maximum utility 
from them. Thus, we are ready for relations which rest upon reciprocity, equality and 
cooperation. Destiny has bestowed on T rkmenistan the opportunity to be at the 
centre of international relations between Europe and Asia. Our underground and 
surface resources are evidence of the possibility of a golden life for the T rkmens in 
the golden century. 

In the past our ancestors presented themselves to the world by the strength of their 
swords; now, we should present ourselves with our rationality and with our immense 
spiritual values. T rkmenistan is known for its unique Ahalteke 


horses, for its carpets that are examples of the wonders of the world's art, and for its 
limitless wonders of nature. Today, in its peaceful policies, the T rkmen nation 
displays endeavours worthy of recognition by the world. As our great thinker 
Magtymguly Pyragy once said, "Look at your future, do not forget your past, utter 
polite speech, restrain your anger. If you are able to speak, please say pleasant things; 
the public has suffered much from bad things." I can see happy days in the future. I 
believe that nothing is able to damage our happiness today and in the future and I am 
always proud of our statute of impartiality. 

Independence has changed the fate of the T rkmen nation completely and has 
brought it to the point of perfection because the nation state is the clear evidence that 
idea of the existence of the nation is not only an imagining or a sweet desire. A 
nation is constructed only by the existence of a nation state. Thus, being a nation is 
different from being a people. A people is a community whose future is uncertain 
because it is deprived of the state which implements the values of the people in real 
life by means of a political movement. Since the future of that community is 
uncertain, this means that it is possible for that people either to survive or to 
disappear. There is only one way to sustain the existence of a people and that is to 
become a nation. To be a nation means to have a nation state. 

Looking at history we can see that nation-building among T rkmens is not just a 
recent process. The historical fate of this nation is very complex; it does not only 
include progress and development, but also includes decline and underdevelopment. 
Marxism defines history as linear and only records forward progress. According to 
its understand- 


ing, firstly tribes emerge, then these tribes transform into peoples and these peoples 
transform into nations. However, history shows us that fall and rise are different 
sides of reality. The life and the national history of the Ttirkmens display many such 
two-sided developments. There have been different periods when the various 
T rkmen tribes transformed into a unified nation and others when a unified 
T rkmen nation divided into tribes again. Thus, today it is necessary for us to 
embrace the idea of the new T rkmen nation, and this is appropriate to the 
objectives of our nation. 

We are right to be extremely proud of our new T rkmen nation and our national 

, ] 


As we are proud of the beautiful buildings and infrastructure being constructed in our 
homeland, we should succeed in seeing the "beautiful buildings" being built in the 
inner world and hearts of our people. The most beautiful buildings should be 
established in our hearts and souls, rather than in our cities and villages. A certain 
amount of understanding is needed to see them. As our Father Magtymguly said, it is 
necessary to acquire wisdom to see them. 

Ruhnama is a new worldview in the sense that it is a spirit that stimulates nature, 
society, and people to work. Without a spirit, it is impossible to speak of life; spirit is 
the source of life. 

Nation is the transformation of human groups in the context of certain spiritual 
foundations. A nation is shaped materially according to these spiritual foundations. 
The reason for my frequent repetition that Oguz Han is the father of our nation is that 
Oguz Han has provided a political and national identity to the T rkmens. By means 
of his efforts, 


the foundations of the T rkmens, who are one of the first nations of the world, were 
built upon. This gives us the following lesson: nation begins with the spirit and its 
material form, civilization; thus, spiritual integrity is needed for a people to transfon- 
n into a nation. 

Spirit is like the 'bismillah', the starting point of life. The starting point of everything 
is spirit. Life gradually disappears when the spiritual order weakens. If it is assumed 
that the world is the body, then the spirit is the life of that body. 

As is understood from the Oghuznamas, the personality of Oguz Han matured very 
early. After maturing, he crossed his father. The area of conflict between them was 
the new attitudes that would shape their society. The basic difference between them 
stemmed from Oguz Han's conversion away from his father's religion. He believed in 
a monotheistic religion while his father believed in a polytheistic one. We feel the 
echoes of historical changes in these events. 

Isay that the ancestor of the T rkmen nation is Oguz Han because, when Oguz Han 
is spoken of, the first things that come to mind are belief in one God, spirit and moral 
values. Furthermore, I want to emphasize an important point here: the main 
underlying reasons for the successes, campaigns, and developments of the five 
thousand year history of the T rkmen nation, founded by Oguz Han, are belief, 
spirit and moral values. Belief in only one God provided the T rkmen nation with 
the power to explain all the forces of mind, reason, and heart inherent in its very 

The greatest rivers rise from the accumulation of the smaller water sources flowing 
from the slopes of the mountains. , 



Even the largest forests are formed by the cracking of very small seeds. 


However, rivers do not drink their own water. 

Gardens do not eat their own fruits. 

So, the main reason for the creation of the spirit is to constitute the source of life and 

to be perfected. 

Among the first things that Oguz Han implemented were the use of the national 

Oguz alphabet and the wagon for during military campaigns. These were 

fundamental to other inventions which would contribute to various developments at a 

world level. 

The ox-cart with two wooden wheels, which was invented by the leader of the tribe 
of Ka'nly, was the second important contribution of T rkmens to world civilization. 

[The Fourth Section 


ly beloved T rkmen ! 

In the course of the development of humanity, many nations and countries have 
made momentous contributions to the world community. China and India 
achieved enormous advances. These advances also happened among the Oguzs 
or T rkmens. World History, however, offers insufficient information about the 
progress made by T rkmens. Great efforts are being made to retrieve what has 
faded of Great T rkmen history. There is not infrequent distortion of the history 
of the Oguz who, ever since the period of Oguz Han, have left significant 
historical traces in the destiny, politics, economics and culture of Asia and 
Europe by founding many great states in the world. Sooner or later, however, 
time will put all things in their proper place. 

The achievements of the Oguzs between the Islt and the 

13th centuries cannot be denied. It is an undeniable truth that the Parfi'a State, 
the Gaznalys, the Seljuks, and the K netirgenqs affected the historical and 
political development of the world and reached a high level of accomplishment 
in the cultural and economic realms. But because some historians were Arab and 
Iranian in origin, they tried to connect all of these historical advances with Iran, 
or with the Arabs and later generalized them as Turkish... Our historians, 
brought up in the Soviet era, did not perceive the evil intentions of those 
historians writing without proper scrutiny 


of their work, and simply repeated their views. They did not realize that these 
ideas form part of an invading country's imperialist purpose. 

When I read and examined the history books, I realized that the word T rkmen' 
has been replaced by the word 'T rk'for more than 50 years. In Ruhnama, 
however, I make the word 'T rkmen' regain its real meaning in order that 
today's T rkmens come to know their ancestors and became vigorous with their 
spirit. May God help us! 

On the day I declared our independence, I stated that T rkmenistan and 
T rkiye (Turkey) are two states, and one nation. For Oguz means T rkmen in 
one sense. The Oguz language is the T rkmen language. The language of the 
I Seljuks and the Ottoman language is also the T rkmen language. Contemporary 

Anatolian Turkish differs little from Ttirkmen. Our religion, culture and lineage 
are identical. We T rkmens are proud of this and expect the same from our 
Turkish brothers. 

5000 years have passed since the foundation of the first T rkmen state. This is 
proved by the arrowheads, arches and other remnants excavated in Bagabat, 
Altyndepe, Tdkgala, the Ary Region, Margiyana and K ne rgenq, which have 
yielded significant information about the Oguz civilization and state of that 
period. These lands under the rule of Oguz Han were known as the Oguz 
Homeland. We have accurate 


information about this in the book Hududul-Alem, which was written in the 

Medieval Period. Ancient sources tell us that the Oguz Homeland stretched from 

Altyntepe through ,&new, knew, Nusay', Tdkgala, the entire Merw, 

K ne rgenq 

16 It means 'the boundaries of the Universe'. 


and Caspian-Belh region, including Se'hun-Je'hun from y 
east to west up to the Mil Sea in the north. Behef in Gbk 


Ta ry was dominant amongst Oguzs. The word G k refers to a feature of God: 
'the Exalted'. This shows that Oguzs believed in one God. Their language was 
Oguzca, the ancient T rkmen language. 

Oguz Han's lineage goes back in a chain to Hz. Nuh. The ancestors of the 
Tijrkmens are the Kara Han. We have a noble lineage. 

My Beloved T rkmen People! I have given vast amounts of information about 
the lineage of Oguz in 'The T rkmen Way'. Beloved T rkmen, I did this in 
order that you and your posterity should never forget your history again. Here, 
then, I want to quote some of the advice of Oguz Han for your good. 

Oguz Han's advice about the land and homeland: 

Whoever cultivates the land finds comfort. 

The life of one who plants a tree becomes eternal. 

He who does not love the soil does not love the homeland. 

■One who harms the land in the slightest degree is not a T rk !man (T rkmen). 

^hen you pluck a leaf, your life is curtailed by one year. If you crack a bough, 
you also break your arm or leg. If you uproot a sapling, you also destroy your 
life. By cutting down a tree you cut down the tree of your life. 

17 The faith of ancient Turks, called the Sky God Belief. 

18 The prophet Noah. 


Do not buy gold; buy land. 

Water is father; ground is mothel 

The soil is your body; the sky is your soul. 

Even if your head touches the sky, respect the earth. 

Oguz Han's advice about language: 

The tongue tells what exists in the heart. 

(If there is) no language, (there can be) no country. 
A word is effectual if said by the heart. 
Wisdom adorns the word. 

The wealth of the language is the wealth of the country. 

A wise man learns language. 

One who knows more language, knows more. 

The word of the generous is also wise. 

When you set out, hold your tongue. 

The language is the state. 

A wise statement is eternal. 

Teach your children the language with its meaning. 

I have a language, so I have a world. 

When the Oguzs are united, these signs are seen in them: 

Their state becomes invincible, and they are blessed. 
Wherever they go, they are victorious. They live on the 

,plateau in summer, and in winter quarters in winter. They 

19 Nomads' summer camping ground. 


rule vast lands. They are ready to face dangers. They conquer and rule over the 
nations. They become very agile, active and eager to hunt. They are strong and 
powerful. They respect prohibitions. They are highly esteemed like old people. 
Their food is plentiful. They work honestly and are persevering. They are I 

esteemed and theirfame is widespread. Wherever they face the enemy, they go to 
war with them. They are both humanitarian and generous. Their livestock is 
well-fed. They set up good businesses. They are brave and lofty. Their advice is 
appropriate. They serve their elders. They are of high esteem. 

When the 'golden arch'is found this happens: It illuminates your standard, shows 
the signs of the Seven Climates of the Earth. You become closer both to the 
Earth and Heaven. However, you will find your way by the 'Seven 

Stars. , Though you walk on earth, your way is to Heaven. Ease and tranquility 
is in your fortune, as you own the key. There are many differences between you 
and those who came before. Wherever you go, your way is open. All this is so 
because you have conquered the heart of the World. 

The golden arch unites the top of three silver arrows and changes into 
abundance. You find the ancient waterfall and drink to repletion from the Oguz 
fountain. In order that you obtain the golden arch, the golden soul of the 
antecedent generations unifies in you. All the powers of the nation are united, 
and states are founded. 

u20 Great Polar bear star group. Big Dipper, Ursa major 


2500 years after Oguz Han's state, there was another state founded with the same 
spirit and structure. One of the most omnipotent Hans of the Great Hun State . 
was no doubt Mete Han. His name in Chinese sources is Mao-Tun. His origin 
was Oguz. Mete Han was also called Oguz Han because of his resemblance to 
his ancestor. In his reign, he ruled the country in a way very similar to that of 
Oguz Han. For this reason, there have emerged contradictory views about Mete 
Ian and Oguz Han, some claiming they were the same person. Mete Han^ I 

however, was the Hakan who recognized the necessity of unifying the Oguz, 
Hun and all the T rkmen tribes and ensuring this unity by following the 
example of his ancestor Oguz, when he felt the state was threatened with 
complete collapse and ruin. 

Mete Han's father was Duman Beg. In Chinese sources he is recorded as 
Teoman. About 220 B.C., Teoman expanded the borders of the state up to the 
edge of Chinese territory. After Teoman, Mete Han succeeded to the throne in 
209 B.C. 

Mete Han had whistling arrows manufactured and special factories built for the 
production of bows and arrows. Great Hun Han Mete brought 26 states under his 
rule and divided the administration into 84 provinces. He ruled over 18 million 
km2, land stretching from the Caspian Sea to the Indian Ocean on one side and 
from the Himalayas to Siberia on the other side. After Mete Han his son, G k 
Han, took his place. Some of the letters written by Mete Han to the king of 
China, Hiao-Wen, are preserved in the archives of China. Mete Han's ideas 
concerning peace, ease and security, mentioned in one of his letters sent to the 
Chinese king, are very interesting. In this letter he states the following: 


("Great Hun Han enthroned by God sends his compliments and greetings to the 
Chinese ruler. Recently a letter concerning peace and our good relations was 
received from your exalted Person. This is the desire of both parties and the 
conditions mentioned in the letter have been fulfilled as is due. 

In recent times, your frontier guards have disregarded Bati Han, Toki. On the 
other hand, provoked by Hu-Heu Nanchu and others, Toki has fought with 
Chinese guards without obtaining my consent. Thus the provisions of the treaty 
signed between two rulers have been violated and this has harmed our friendly 
relations. The Han made his country the enemy of the neighbouring state. I 
received two letters full of rage from you. Our envoy, who was conveying our 
reply, has not yet returned. However, the Chinese envoy also might not return. 
This situation has caused an unintended eventuality between two neighbouring 

It was the actions of some guards which violated the treaty. I gave an order to 
Toki Beg for the punishment of these men. 

As our brave men are agile, our horses are strong and hardy, by the help of God, 
they won a victory in the battle against the instigators. Owing to the sharpness of 
our swords, we defeated the instigators and they surrendered. Recently we have 
taken under our rule a total of 26 tribes and countries in Central Asia, such as 
L6an, Usun, Hukut... The people of these countries have become subject to us 
■andall their lands or countries have become our provinces. 

"After I secure peace and security in the northern countries, my intention is to rest 
the army and graze the horses. Leaving the things which have occurred between 
us behind, 


I want to renew the old agreement. As in the earher period, the people of the 
frontier tribes may live comfortably in peace. May the children grow up and 
elders live at their ease till the end of their lives. May peace and ease prevail for 

Since I have not received any information from the Chinese ruler for a long 
time, I am sending this letter with the vizier of the Palace, He-u-Tsiye. I am 
sending a camel, two saddle and eight carriage horses as a gift. If the Han 
doesn't want the Huns to violate the Chinese borders, he must order the people 
living along the frontier line and the frontier guards to stay at a distance from the 

Because this letter exemplifies the policy of the Oguz State, when it had secured 
its unity for the first time, I give the text in its entirety. 


As a continuation of the Oguzs and the Great Hun State, the G k T rkmen 
State was established by Bumyn Han in 552. It was demolished by the Uygurs 
and Garlyks in 745. The reign of Bilge Han was the most brilliant period of the 
state. Bilge Han was bom in 683. His father was Ilteriy Gutlug Han. At the age 
of 33 he became the great ruler of the Gbk T rkmen State. G k Ta'nry belief 
was prevalent in the country and the state took its name from this faith. The 
meaning of Gbk T rkmen is the T rkmen belief in the exalted God. Bilge Han 
declared his Oguz descent with a statement in the inscription on his tombstone: 
"The Oguz land is my own homeland." 

The state had a vast territory neighbouring the Sasanid, Roman and Chinese 


As a consequence of internal turmoil, battles for the throne and declining power, 
the G k T rkmen State col- 
lapsed in 630. 

One of the well-known statements of Bilge Han was as 
follows: "O! Oguz Begs! Shudder and hsten! Who can break 
,down your country and traditions unless the blue sky above us tumbles down^ 

the dark land below us cracks." 

The power of the state lies in the unity and solidarity of the people who 
consecrate and protect their country and national values. G k T rkmens had 
their own alphabet and they made notable advances in art. 


The Garahanly state was founded in T rkmenistan and Maveraunnehir by Bilge 
K 1 Kadyr Han in 840. 

The state derives its name from the title of K 1 Kadyr Han: the 'Garahan'. 
Garlyk, Jyky, and yagma tribes were dominant among the Garahanly s. The role 
of Islam was no doubt great in their growth. 

After Kadyr Han, his sons Bazar Arslan and Ogulgak Han ruled the state. 

Saltuk Bugra, the son of Bazar Han was brought up by Ogulcak Han after the 
death of his father. When Saltuk Bugra became Muslim, Islam spread rapidly in 
Central Asia, especially in T rkmenistan. 

When Saltuk Bugra Han died in 966, his son Bayda Arslan Han took his place 
and restored the state which was about to collapse. In 1006, Garahanlys took 
control of 


Maveraunnehir, destroying the Samanly (Samanid) State. Subsequently, their 
struggle with the Gaznalys started. In 1042 the state was divided into two parts. 
East and West Garahanly, as they could not resist the power of the Gaznaly 
Soltan Mahmyt. 

The Garahanly State has the distinction of being the first 
T rkmen state that accepted the religion of Islam. 


This was the state founded by the Oguz tribes. In ancient Arab and Chinese 
sources, one comes across the word 'Yabgu'. yabgu (or yagby) is a title meaning 
'Great'. Those tribes which founded the Oguz Yabgu State later established 'Nine 
Oguz Khanates' alongside the Don River after the collapse of the Gaznaly State. 

The most significant activity of the Oguzs was in 

Maveraunnehir at the beginning of the 10 h century. They called the state they 
founded on the territories they had inherited from their ancestors Oguz yabgu. 
etreating from Khorasan, the Chinese frontiers and the banks of the Idil river, 

they were squeezed into the land between the Seyhun 

Garajyk, Sayran and Jent and Jeyhun Rivers. The yanykent, 
regions remained to them as a homeland. 

The turmoil within the state in the middle of the 10th century and the rapid 
spread of Islam caused the collapse of the oguz yabgu State. Dukak, who was 
famous under the name Demir-yayly (the man with the iron-arch), fought with 
gUL YabSu. Later on his son, Seljuk, converted to Islam and 
broke away from oguz Yabgu. 



!^--^ W--7-; "d.^:X^ 

'^'X.--^ ^.^^v^^, ^^^^s^ 

The handwriltcn copy of Ruhnama belonging lu our 
BelDved Leader Saparmyrat Tiirkmeiiba^y the Great 

The essential feature of the Oguz Yabgu State is that it strove to keep up the 
Oguz tradition. However, the rapid expansion of Islam caused the destruction of 
gthe state. Another important feature was that this state raised a shrewd and 

intelligent commander, Seljuk Beg. 

The Seljuks were from the Kynyk tribe of the Oguzs and the lineage of Ayhan. 
They founded their mighty state in Jent. 

Seljuk Dukak was a shrewd subasi^^ . Historians translated his name as 'the Man 
with the iron-arch' in different sources. 

Expanding within the Maveraunnehir and Buhara regions, they lived near related 
clans and tribes who were living a settled life. They established good relations 
with the Kbne rgenqs and became friends of the Garahanlys. 

The Seljuks were a brave and dauntless people who liked horses and rode them 
well. Otherwise, Gaznaly Mahmyt would not have invited them to Khorasan! 
Contrary to what many historians have claimed, Soltan Mahmyt's intention was 
not to do favours to T rkmens. Soltan Mahmyt was himself a T rkmen, as 
f'jwere the majority of his soldiers. T rkmens lived in the villages and cities in 
Khorasan. They dwelled especially in the Merw, Abywerd, Nusay, Sarahs, 
Amul, Balkan, Zem, Maveraunnehir, M ngy lak and Was regions. 

Soltan Mahmyt had organized 18 military campaigns to India, and filled the 
treasury of the state with gold and silver. However, there now emerged a 
challenge to him and a threat to his state from his relatives, the Seljuks. Soltan 
Mahmyt's response was the wise strategy of having the Seljuks cross 

21 The name of a rank in the military staff. 


over the Jeyhun Sea and settle in Khorasan. This was a part of a policy known 
and implemented by many for thousands of years, 'Divide, Disintegrate and 
Rule'. The Seljuks migrated, but no-one would give them land or pasture. So, the 
Seljuks had to struggle for survival. Their struggle was against the settled 
T rkmens of Merw, Sarahs, Abywerd and Nusa'. In fact it was the Soltan 
himself who had invited the Seljuks but it was basically because the Seljuks 
were stronger and more vigorous than the settled T rkmens. The Soltan left the 
choice of land to the will of the Seljuks. These domestic conflicts were the 
harbingers of war. Thus Soltan Mahmyt would more easily organize his military 
campaigns to India because, he had sown the seeds of war among the 
T rkmens. On one occasion, to demonstrate his power in comparison with the 
Seljuks, Soltan Mahmyt called Arslan Han for a meeting and had him arrested 
and imprisoned in Kelejar fortress. Incidentally, the Seljuks did not fight 
amongst themselves over territorial claims. They challenged only the T rkmens 
in Khorasan and there existed no other option for the Seljuks at that time. 

Through all this, the Seljuks did not war with their relatives, the T rkmens, and 
chose to request a homeland officially from the Soltan himself. Soltan Mahmyt 
gave them a place. However the descendant of Soltan Mahmyt, his son Soltan 
Mesut, changed this policy. Relations between Seljuks and Soltan Mesut 
worsened continuously until Soltan Mesut sent a great army under the command 
of his pre-eminent commander Begdogdy. However, this talented commander 
was defeated by the Seljuks. In the battle, the Seljuks made use of the tactic 
called ' Strike and Retreat'. 

After their victory in the Da'ndanakan War, the Seljuks 


called a council. In the council they proclaimed the new T rkmen state and sent 
envoys to the Caliph and neighbouring begs and Hans. 

Seljuks increased their power still more by promising unity with the indigenous 
T rkmens. Consequently, they attained their ideal of ' World Domination'. 

Because of ulterior motives, some historians accuse the T rkmens of barbarism, 
claiming that the Seljuks destroyed the Gaznaly state and the K netirgenq 
ended the Seljuk State. In fact, the T rkmens were peaceful, tolerant and 
conciliatory in character. T rkmens are highly tolerant. But they have never run 
away from war when faced with the injustices of surrounding Hans or Soltans. A 
T rkmen never swerves from his decision. He shows patience until the last 
moment, but he straps on his sword unhesitatingly in case the conditions become 
unbearable. Nothing can stop him after that point. 

Soltan Mesut followed an unjust policy towards the T rkmens and attacked 
them three or four times. The T rkmens tried to bear this situation, but there 
was a limit to their patience. 

The Seljuk Sultanate fell in Soltan Sanjar's period in the same way because of 
the implementation of an unjust policy like Soltan Mesut's. Relations between 
the Great Seljuks and the T rkmens around Belkh broke down. Soltan Sanj'ar 
refrained from warring with the T rkmens who were his relatives, though. 

One may claim that Nizamylm Ik ascended to the vizierate through trickery and 
shrewdness. He succeeded in sowing discord between Soltan Alp Arslan and the 
elderly vizier. The young Soltan ordered the old vizier's execution. 


Before his death the old vizier said: You have taught the T rkmen Soltans to 
shed blood." In fact, the T rkmen Soltans believed that anyone who shed blood 
-unjustly, distanced himself from Allah. 

The last words of the old vizier were the best proof of this general attitude of 
T rkmen Soltans. In T rkmen Soltanates, and Khanates, the mothers and wives 
of the princes were shown great respect. They were called Tarhan (Terken, 
T rkan) Hatyn... The wife and mother of the Soltan was respected as the mother 
of the entire Sultanate, though the T rkmen Soltans tried to restrain the 
interference of their mothers and wives in state affairs. Tijrkmens say: "Both the 
throne and fortune of the woman is her fireplace." T rkan Hatyn, the widowed 
mother of K ne rgenq Soltan Alaeddin Muhammet, violated this sound 
principle. T rkan Hatyn gained an equal say with her son in ruling the country. 
The begs and religious savants did not endorse her behavior. In the end, this 
great state could not resist the invasion of Jengiz Han and collapsed. 


The founder of the Gaznaly State was the Khorasan governor. Alp Tegin, from 
the Gay (Kayi) tribe of Oguzs, who had earlier served the Samanids. He came to 
the city of Gazna in 962 and took it under his rule. The state took its name from 
this city. Although the territories of the state were extended by Seb k Tegin, the 
most splendid period of the state had been during the rule of Soltan Mahmyt. 
In a short period, Gaznaly Soltan Mahmyt, having gained the support of the 
Oguz tribes, became a great power and endeavoured to spread Islam in the 
neighboring coun- 


tries. His main target was to expand his state and disseminate Islam. The borders 
of the state expanded to Khorasan, Harezm, Iraq, Belkh, South Iran and north 
India in a very short time. 

For a certain period, he maintained friendly relations with Garahanly State. 
During that period, he could not come to an agreement with the sons of Seljuk. 
Furthermore he had Arslan Beg arrested and put into jail. However, he later 
authorized the migration and settlement of the Seljuks in Khorasan. Though he 
had disputes with Togrul and Cagry Begs, the grandsons of Seljuk Beg, he 
prevented fraternal quarrels amongst the Garahanlys. On this issue he said: 
"Stop your enmity towards each other. Put your swords in their sheaths. 
Everyone must concern himself with the province under his rule," and settled the 
disputes between 

them. However, by his death, they had started struggling for the throne again. 


I After Soltan Mesut ascended to the throne, the Seljuks settled in Khorasan 
I became his main target. These two Oguz tribes could not share the land and 
I fought first in 1038 near Tdkgala and later in 1040 near Sarahs on the 
^^^a'ndanakan Plain. This resul ted in S oltan Mesut withdrawing with great losses 

and Khorasan, Iran, K neijrgeng and Maveraunnehir passing to the control of 
the Seljuks. After this, the Gaznaly State faced great turmoil and finally became 
subject to the Seljuk State. 


This State was founded in 1040 by Togrul and (;agry Begs after their victory in the 
Daildanakan War against the Gaznalys. The Seljuks are from the Kynyk tribe of 


The Seljuks underwent a very troubled period after arriving in Khorasan. When 
Seljuk Beg died, he was over 100 years old. In his old-age, leaving all else aside, he 
brought up his grandsons, Togrul and (;agry Begs. The son of Seljuk Beg, Arslan 
Han, settled on the Nur Plateau near Buhara, taking Togrul and (;agry Begs with 
himself. The sole aim of the two brothers trained by Seljuk Beg was to make 
Khorasan their homeland. 

To attain their goal, Cagry Beg together with his brave men crossed over Khorasan to 
reach the Roman Land (Anatolia). The two brothers' intention to conquer Khorasan 
intensified after the arrest and imprisonment of Arslan Beg by Gaznaly Mahmyt. 

After crossing the Jeyhun River in 1035, they settled near Tdkgala. They informed 
Soltan Mesut of their intentions in a letter. In it they demanded that Soltan Mesut 
grant them for settlement the Nusay and Paraw provinces, where they would put their 
animals out to pasture. They stated that they could suppress the insurrections likely to 
happen in the corridor from the Balkan Dagi, Dehistan, and Crgenq frontiers to the 
banks of the Je'hun River. 


Soltan Mesut, who did not accept their offer, fought with the Seljuks near Tdkgala in 
1038. Soon after, in 1040, there was another battle near Sarahs on the Da'ndanakan 
Plain. By way of war the Seljuks gained the things they had not been able to attain 
peacefully, and laid the foundations of the Great Seljuks' State. 

This victory made the fatherland their property forever. After the war, they 
summoned a council and declared their independence. Togrul Beg received the title 
of 'Soltan'. They made the city of Rey their capital (1040-1063). Cagry Beg 

225 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

stayed in Merw (1040-1060). The two brothers ruled the state in unity and 


In 1063 Alp Arslan, the son of qagry Beg, ascended to the throne. Alp Arslan was the 

great Soltan who unlocked the gates of Anatoha. His son Mdhk yah expanded the 

borders of the Seljuks and his son Soltan Sanjar promoted improvements in science 

and civilization. 

The Great Seljuk State promoted Islam along with the Oguz culture, and in this way 
they enlarged their frontiers from Istanbul to China. Furthen-nore, being a great state, 
the Seljuks were honored as being the guard of the entire Islamic World. In addition, 
intending to dominate the world, they treated the people under their rule equally and 
justly and made great progress in the realms of culture and civilization. They 
improved the whole country, building roads, bridges, caravanserai, small mosques, 
madrassas (schools, universities) and hospitals. 

My beloved citizens! It is an important fact that great T rkmen heroes, Muhammet 
Togrul Beg, qagry Beg, Alp Arslan, Mdlik yah and Soltan Sanjar, succeeded in 
becoming the Soltans of the Islamic World with the states they established, their 
heroism, prudence, and policies. As the T rkmen Nation, we must study these great 
personalities. Oh T rkmens, be proud of your lineage! 

The K ne rgenq State was founded by Kutbeddin Muhammed of the Beydili tribe 
of Oguz in 1093. Kutbetddin Muhammet was the son of Anu Tegin, who was the 
governor of K ne rgenq in the Seljuks State. When the Seljuks 


weakened, the KOneyrgeny State achieved full independence under the leadership of 
Atsyz. After Atsyz, his son 1 1 Arslan became the Soltan. 

After the death of 1 1 Arslan, first his youngest son Soltan yah took his place in 1 172, 
and then in 1 174 Alaaddin Teke ascended to the throne. In their era, the 
K ne rgenq made great advances. The K netirgenq State collapsed as a 
consequence of the Mongol invasion, which began in 1219. At that time, Jelaleddin 
Mefibumu'n (1220-123 1) was ruler of the country. He is known as a brave, vahant 
Soltan. The K ne rgenq State collapsed totally in 123 1. 

After the Da-ndanakan triumph of the Seljuks, the Kerman region was given to the 
Oguzs under the grandson of qagry Beg, Gara Arstan Gurda Beg. After taking power 


Ken-nan, Gurda Beg reigned for many years (1040-1073). ame fully independent in 

The Kerman Seljuks bee ~^ 

M lik*ah's period and their rule continued till 1 1 87. 


This state was established by Gutylmy*ogly S leyman 

*ah in 1075 and endured till 1308. 

One of the fundamental causes of the establishment of 

olian Seljuk State was the victory of Alp Arslan at 

the Anat ns who rushed in 

Malazgijt in 1 07 1 . The Seljuk T -rkme GutylmY Ogly 

through the gates of Anatolia gathered under ered Konya 

S leyman *ah. Gutylmyyogly Silleyman conqu 

and, moving ahead, captured Iznik. 14e made Iznik his CaPi- 


tal. Later, S leyman yah conquered Tarsus, Adana, Mersin and Malatya and, by 
1085, Antakya. 

Gylyq Arslan became the second Soltan of the Anatolian Seljuk State. He is famous 
for his great contribution to the settlement of T rkmens in Anatolia, the expansion 
of Islam and the unification and strengthening of the T rkmen begs. 


Tutus, the son of Soltan Alp Arslan was appointed to Damascus as Melik. The semi- 
autonomous Syrian Seljuks were dependent on the Great Seljuk State. After the death 
of Mdlikyah, the brother of Tutu , they became fully independent. On Tutu 's death 
in 1095, his two sons became Melik (ruler), Ridvan of Halep and Dukak of Sham. 
However, their reigns did not last long. While ArtygyoguUari took Ilgazi, B6riogulari 
(Sham Atabegs) captured Sham. The Syrian Seljuks ended de facto by 1 1 17. 

Sham became developed greatly as a centre and, with the settlement of T rkmens, 
contributed to the progress of civilization. 


The most famous ruler of ArtykoguUari was the Seljuk Emir, Artyk Beg. A-rtyk Beg 
went on the Caucasus Campaign 

with Soltan Alp Arslan, and later was assigned to the conquest of Anatoha. After the 
death of A-rtyk Beg in 1091, his sons S6kmen and Ilgazi took his place. 
ArtykoguUari rule lasted from 1 101 to 1409. Later, however it disintegrated into 
different branches. 

This principality played an important role in the Ttirkmenification of Anatolia. The 
madrassas they built, the scholars they supported and their works of art show the 
great contribution of the ArtykoguUari to the progress of civilization. Moreover, the 
first mechanical robots were invented by A-rtyki's scholars. 


From the first days of Islamic expansion in Khorasan, the number of T rkmens in 
Iraq rose steadily. T rkmens played an important role in the establishment of the 
city of Baghdad. However, struggles for the throne between Iraqi T rkmens were 
always a great problem. Soltan Sanjar aimed to end these quarrels. Taking the 
opportunity to capture authority and strengthen political power, he appointed his 
brother Muhammet Tapar's son Mahmyt as Melik. With the death of Mahmyt, 
ferocious crisis and turmoil resumed. 


The Mosul Atabegs was founded in 1 127 by Imameddin Ze 'ni who had been the 
Mosul Emir of the Iraqi Seljuk Ruler, Mahmyt. Later, they became famous as 
'Ze'n'nis.'They annexed Jizra, Nusaybin, Harran and Halep to their territory. 

The 'Ze'n'nis' separated into two branches, the Mosul and the Halep Atabegs. They 
reigned till 1259. 



The Eyuby State was one that maintained the Oguz tradition. They were kin to the 
Mosul Atabegs or 'Ze'n'nis'. Sending troops under the command of Salahattin Eyuby, 
Nurettin Mahmyt Ze 'ni conquered Egypt. After Nurettin Ze'n i, Salahattin Eyuby 
became the Soltan of the state. Salahattin Eyy'uby overthrew the Fatimid State in 
Egypt. Later, the state became an entirely T rkmen state with its language, military 
and culture. 

The Eyuby's lived their most sparkling period during the reigns of Kdmil Muhammed 
and Salih Nejmeddin. Between 1222 and 1239 the majority of the Gypjaks migrated 
to Eyuby land because of the Mongolian invasion. 

The Eyuby State started to weaken on the death of Nejmeddin Eyuby in 1224. The 
T rkmen language and culture reached the lands of Egypt during the E' uby reign. 


The Seljuks were the T rkmen tribe which settled Shiraz after conquering Iran in 
1 147. This principality was founded by Sungur Ata Beg from the lineage of Satyr 
Han. It was dissolved in 1284, and passed under the rule of Ilhanlys. 



Ilde'nizliler state was founded by Ata Beg *emsettin Ilde'niz in 1 146. Its capital was 
Tebriz. Nahcivan and Gence were its most important cities. It kept Iraq and southern 
Iran under its rule for a period. It was demolished by Jelaleddin 

K ne rgenqin 1225. 



It was founded by Gur Soltan Muiziddin Muhammed yah at the end of the 12 Ih 
century. Aybeg became more influential than the Gurlys and taking the title 
Kutbeddin ascended to the throne in Lahore in 1206. T rkmens also seized power 
and started to reign in Delhi. Being originally T rkmen, Aybeg was brought up by 
Kadi of Nisabur Fahreddin Abdulaziz. Punjab, Buhara, Kashmir and the Middle 
India Plateau were within the borders of his state. The reign of the Delhi T rkmen 
Khanate lasted till 1526. The Memluks, Halaqs, Togalaks, Seyits, and Ludis 
constituted the main elements of the state. 


The Memluk state was founded in Egypt in 1250 by Soltan Aybeg. Soltan Aybeg 
ruled till 1257. After that Gutuz took his place. He is famous for his victory over the 
Mongolians in 1260. As a result of this victory, the Mongolians could not set foot in 
Egypt. The Memluks ruled the country according to the Ttirkmen-Islamic tradition 
till 1527. 


ResuloguUary was a T rkmen who settled in Yemen. The son of Muhammed, 
Karun, known as Resul, was one of the T rkmen begs from among the E'yubys who 
went to Egypt. Selahaddin yah sent his brother Turan yah to Yemen. ResuloguUary 
went with him. Nureddin Beg of the ResuloguUary held an important position in the 
state. He took power in Yemen on the death of the E ' ' uby ruler Melik yy 



Mesud in 1228. In Yemen Nureddin Beg and his sons reigned till 1455. 
ResuloguUary played an important role in the construction of Yemen. 


The Ottoman state was founded in S6g t in 1299 by Osman Gazi, the son of krtogrul 
Gazi from the Kayi tribe of the Oguzs, who had come to Anatolia from Merw. 

Alp Arslan had opened the gates of Anatolia with his Malazgirt victory over the 
Byzantines. The T rkmens rapidly began a great movement for the conquest and 
Islamization of Anatoha and estabhshed the Antohan Seljuk State in 107 1. This state 
endured until 1308. As a consequence of the weakening and collapse of the 
Anatohan Seljuk state by the end of 

the 13th century, many beyliks emerged in Anatolia. The Ottoman state was one of 
these beyliks. krtogrul Gazi was a frontier beg who lived in S6g t, with a cavalry of 
400 at his command, krtogrul Gazi and his brother, D ndar Beg, had settled in 
Anatolia, but his other two brothers G ndogdy and Sungur Alp had returned to 
Horosan. After moving from place to place in Anatolia, krtogrul and D ndar Begs 
had finally taken Sbg t from the Byzantines. Later, the Anatolian Seljuk Soltan 
Alaaddin Keykubat granted Sbg t to them and S69tit became their property. The 
Domaniq and Enneni Mountains were given as pasture, krtogrul Gazi made S6g t 
his home and died at the age of 93 in 1281. 

After krtogrul Gazi, his son Osman Gazi replaced him. Gathering many Ttirkmen 
Begs around him, Osman Gazi established the state. 


Osman Gazi was one of the three sons of &rtogrul Gazi. He was distinguished from 
his brothers by his foresight and vigorous personality. After the death of his father, 
he succeeded in unifying the T rkmen Begs under his leadership. He was 23 years 
old when he came to power. He was a very handsome young T rkmen, tall, deep- 
chested, with heavy black brows over hazel-colored eyes and a Roman nose. He was 
broad-shouldered and the upper part of his body was longer than the lower part. 

When &rtogrul was on his deathbed, he announced his last testament: " O! My Son! 
Every man will die. By the will of Allah, death has come at last to me. This state is 
entrusted to you. And I am entrusting you to Allah. Be just in all your 


The state krtogrul and Osman Gazis had founded dom- 
inated one third of the world for more than 600 years under 



the title 'Devlet-i Aliye/ 


Garagoyunly state was founded in 1380 around Erzurum. Ercis and Mosul. 
Garagoyunlys were T rkmens of the yuwa, -kazir, D ger and ow ar tribes of the 
oguzs. They were divided into different clans, the Varanli, Duharli, Sadli, Karamanli, 
Hacih and Bozdogan. An Akinci beg called Bayram Hoja had been at the head of 
these Ttirkmens till 1380. After Bayram Hoja, Gara M mmet expanded the borders 
of the state. After the conquest of Tebriz, he made this 

city the capital of his state. 

22 it means The EMinent, Great, state. 


Kara Yusuf s era was the most marvelous period of the Garagoyunlys. By the death 
of Teymir, Garagoyunlys had became the most powerful state in the region. Kara 
Yusuf captured Mardin in 1409 and ended the A-rtykly dynasty. The Garagoyunly 
state became a great state after the conquests of Erzincan in 1410 and Soltaniye in 
Azerbaijan in 1415. 

I Jihan *ah ascended to the throne in 1436 and became the sovereign of Kirman with 
the conquest of Baghdad, Soltaniye, Kazwin and Isfahan. The state became very 
powerful. The collapse of the Garago'unly State was caused by the Akgoyunlys. The 
ruler of the Akgoyunly State, Uzyn Hasan, fought against the Garagoyunly State 
I several times. The Garagoyunly ruler, Jihan yah, was captured and killed in 1467 
■ after his defeat in the war against Uzyn Hasan. After this incident the Garagoyunly 
State collapsed. 

The Garagoyunly State played an important role in the dissemination of the 
T rkmen language and culture in and around South Anatolia and Azerbaijan. 


This was the state founded by Garagoyunlys in India. Its foundations were laid by 
Soltanguly in 1517. Soltanguly was from Bay'ram Hoja's lineage. 
After Jihan *ah, the Garagoyunly state was unsuccessful in resettling its power back 
again and under the leadership of Abdullah a great number of people withdrew to 
Khorasan and India. Soltanguly and his sons took refuge in India, Dakka and the 
State of Bahmani. The Soltanguly had been brought up under the tutelage of the 
Bahmani State ruler 


Mahmyt yah. After the collapse of the Bahmani State, the T rkmens founded a new 
state under the leadership of Soltanguly. In a very short time, this state became the 
most powerful state in the region. 

The Kutubyah State lasted till 1687. In time they were assimilated into India. This 
state produced Bayram Han, who was both a great statesman and a poet. 

'akgoyunlyt rkmen state 

This state was founded after the collapse of the Ilhanly State in 1350. The 
Akgoyunlys lived in and around Diyarbakir, in Anatolia. It was founded by 
Ttirkmens gathered under the leadership of Tur Aly, who was one of the begs of 
Akgoyunly. The Akgoyunly people were of the Ba' ndyr tribe of the Oguz. Later, by 
uniting with the Dtiker, 


Ba'at and Cepni tribes, they increased their power. 


During the period of Tur Aly Beg's leadership, a military campaign was organized 
against the Trabzon Rum Pontus State. The king of Trabzon Rum Pontus State gave 
his daughter in marriage to Kutlu Beg, son of Akgoy'unly Beg in order to prevent 
these attacks. 

Under Gutly Beg's son, Ahmet Beg, the Akgoyunly people fought with the 

Garagoy'unly several times. In one of these battles, Ahmet Beg escaped from the 

hands of the 


Garagoyunly with the assistance of Sivas' Emir Kadi Burhaneddin. The prestige of 

the Akgo'unly State increased y 

during the reign of Ahmet Beg's brother, Gara Osman Beg. It 


23 Emir means the governor. 


is Gara Osman who is seen as the real founder of the Akgo'unly State. In 1389, Gara 

Osman captured the city of y 

Sivas from Kadi Burhaneddin. In order to acquire full independence, the Akgoyunlys 

had to leave the Ottoman patronage. The Akgo'unly people therefore made an 

alliance with y 

Berkuyarik, Memluk Soltan of Egypt against the Ottoman Empire. After that they 

sought the protection of Tamerlane. In this way, they took authority over Diyarbakir, 

Malatya and the surrounding areas. 

The most famous of the Akgoyunly Rulers was Gara Osman's son, Uzyn Hasan. 
Uzyn Hasan recaptured Diyarbakir in 1453. In 1457, he defeated Jihan yah, who was 
the ruler of the Garagoyunly people. Later the Akgoyunlys added Khorasan, Bagdat, 
yiraz and Isfahan to the territory under their rule. 

Uzyn Hasan was defeated by the famous Padi ah of the Ottoman Empire, Soltan 
Fatih Soltan Mehmet in the Otlukbeh War in 1473. yah Ismail, who succeeded in 
uniting the T rkmens living in Eastern Anatolia, Azerbaijan and the surrounding 
areas, founded the Safavid State, thus putting an end to the Akgoyunly State. 

The Akgoyunlys were the people who maintained the traditions of the old 

T rkmens. Uzyn Hasan chose for the flag of the Akgoy'unly State the symbol that 

had been used before by the Bayindir tribe. 



At the beginning of the 16 century after the Akgoyunly State,' a new T rkmen 
dynasty came to power in 


Iran. The Safavid people were the T rkmens who had migrated to Iran from 
Anatolia. There were several reasons for the migration of T rkmens. The Akgoyunly 
people who lived in Erdebil belonged to the higher religious elite of the Safavids; the 
Garagoyunly people returned back to Iran because they could not stand for this. The 
T rkmens migrated group by group because of the effects of the Safavids'religious 
beliefs. The founders of the Safavid State, like the founders of the Ottoman Empire 
were T rkmens by origin. The mother of yah Ismail, the founder of the State 
established in 1502, was the daughter of the Akgoyunly ruler. 

Iran, Eastern Khorasan, Iraq, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Daghestan, T rkmenistan, the 
Eastern coasts of the Arab Peninsula and Eastern Anatolia all lay inside the borders 
of the S afavid State. The period of y ah Abbas' governance was the most splendid 
era of the Safavid State. This period lasted till his death in 1628. 

This state is remembered as the Iran-T rkmen or IranTurk state. Despite the great 
influence of Persian culture on the Safavid people, they preserved their T rkmen 


Nedir yah, who had been a commander in Safavid state, came to power in Iran in 
1736. Nedir yah was descended from the Ow ar tribe of the Oguz. He defeated the 


Uveysi people, rulers of Iran for a short period, and expelled them from Iran. Using 
his military might, Nedir yah captured the throne. On Nedir yah's ascent to the 
throne, Iran gained many things. First of all, it regained the land which had been 
taken by the Ottoman Empire earlier. In addition, Nedir yah 


defeated Bab r yah and took over Delhi. 

After Nedir yah's death in 1747, his descendant Adyl yah was not able to prolong the 
reign of the Ow ar tribe. In 1750, the Ow ar dynasty reached its end. 


The Gajars were the last T rkmen dynasty in Iran. The Gajars were also originally 
T rkmen. From historical sources, it is clear that the Gajars were one of the seven 
Oguz tribes sent by the Safavids from Anatolia to Iran as a ransom to yyh Ala. These 
tribes were as follows: Ustaqli, yamli, Tekeli, Baharly, Dulkadyr, Ow ar and Gajar. 
The Gajars had control of Azerbaijan, Astrabat, Merw, Khorasan and even the lands 
up to Kazwin and Isfahan. 

In 1779 Aga Muhammed Han from Gajar ascended the throne and declared his 
authority. The Gajar reign in Iran, which began with the reign of Aga Muhammed 
Han, lasted till 1925. 


As the nation that founded all the many states mentioned above, we, the T rkmens, 
have established our own national, independent state in our own land again. The 
power of the state we have established lies here. Finally we have our independent and 
permanently neutral T rkmenistan, which will be the greatest of all the Ttirkmen 
states in histo- 


ry and a source of pride. We note and recall all these preceding states as a sign of our 
respect for them. We have revived the soul of our forefather, Oguz. All these states in 
our history are related to the state we have now established. In addition this state has 
three distinctive features that previous states could only wish for: National 
Independence, Permanent Neutrality and the Ruhnama of T rkmen. 

I want to touch on these three sound foundations. First, National Independence. 
The T rkmens who believe in their people, their fatherland and their leader founded 

the Republic of T rkmenistan 



on the 27 October 1991. Independence ensured our confidence in our people, our 
fatherland and justice, and the unity and cooperation of the 24 tribes of our ancestor 
Oguz. By uniting sovereignty and nationhood we became independent in our 
fatherland. We took our flag and marks of the state from the essential meaning 
derived from our profound roots. 

There exist many traces of our history in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Caucasus, 
Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ta . ikistan, Afghanistan, China, Russia, India and Pakistan. 
In this region, there have been periods in which T rkmens established direct 
relations with everybody. However, this was not possible in recent times. Now after 
re-inspecting all our historical relations we have succeeded in establishing good 
relations with all of them. When I declared our status of permanent neutrality to the 
whole world on the occasion of 

the celebration of the 50 Anniversary of the United Nations, I mentioned our legacy 
to the civilizations which have developed in that terrain which was occupied by the 


Oguzs, T rkmens and Seljuks. Today, our conciliatory nature constitutes a good 
example. Our peace-loving and conciliatory character is not peculiar only to today, 
however, and those countries, which had many relations with us in the past know this 
best. Therefore, our neighbors and other states in our region were first to support our 
status of neutrality. Later, all states showed their support for this policy. 

rConstant Neutrality was the second foundation we achieved on independence. It 
was Oguz Han's wish and prayer uttered five thousand years ago that our land 
may be at peace forever. Our ancestors' belief was always that our blue sky 
should be dominated by peace and tranquility. We became confident that we 
could survive on earth by adopting and enacting this faith of our ancestors as the 
fundamental principle of our state. Since the very first day, we have known that 
peace and trust are the secrets of life on earth. Developing our good- will further, 
we started the Open Door Policy in the economic realm and we accepted neutral 
status in our foreign policy. Believing that integration with the world depends on 
our being committed to it and loving everybody and that this is possible first of 
all by ensuring peace in our own country, we regarded the foundation of the 
T rkmen State as one of our primary duties. All the countries of the world, 
starting with the neighboring countries in the region accepted the rightness of 

our path and started to support us. By a unanimous vote of 185 states, on 12 
December 1995 the Central Assembly of the United Nations gave our state the 
status of Permanent Neutrality. Thus, for the first time in history, the neutrality 
of a state was legalized and we became officially the only neutral state in the 
world. We put the olive bough, which is the symbol of peace in the United 


, Nations' flag, on our green flag. 

To recognize the humanitarian ideas and particular qualities that make us a 
nation, and to bring these values to light as an example for us and our 
descendants is very important. I have thought a lot on this subject and I have 
always shared my ideas with my people. Finally, I have reached this conclusion: 
there must be a book that integrates the most valuable characteristics, the spirit 
of the T rkmens on earth. That is to say, the Ttirkmens shall have a Ruhnama. 
By the way, this book can take the place of our lost books and be, after the 
Qur'an, the book of the T rkmens. Besides, until now T rkmens have not been 
able to found a state on their own land based on such moral unity, though they 
have established numerous states elsewhere. We can now confidently say that 
we have established a state in a spirit of unity. Our Ruhnama has the nature of a 
bridge that leads us to this. Ruhnama is a book which advises so that T rkmens 
may not repeat in the future mistakes from their past, and so that they may 
always and everywhere be an example and show the way. I believe that 
Ruhnama will be one of the first guides of the T rkmens. 

Iwant to remind you once again that our way gets its power from history. It is a 
fact that our ancestors migrated all around the world. Our economic route is also 
well-defined, as is our way of peace that leads to the hearts of the states and 
nations of the world. Our aim is to scatter intimacy and radiance into the hearts 
of the states of the world, that is, to heat and light the homes of other peoples 
with the natural gas from T rkmenistan. 

Our independence and neutrality illuminate our Golden century and are 
illuminated by our national values. Reviving 


with Ruhnama, God willing, we can alter our future in the 

Golden Age. In the Golden century, in the 21st century, our main aim is to build 
a T rkmen nation which can be a model for the entire world. With our 
independence, which lets us now cut our own cloth to fit, and our neutrality 
which spreads the sign of peace in the world, our nation will also prove itself a 
model in human relations by displaying its affluent spirit. 

May our people and state live in security under our tranquil sky. 

State is the unity of ideas and values; homeland is the unity of feeling and values 
of the heart. When I look at the map of T rkmenistan, the shape resembling a 
strong bull goring the Caspian Sea comes to life before my eyes... from the 
Caspian to the mountains of Serhatabat, from the fertile lands of Hojambaz to 
the vast plains and mountains of Da oguz Ayb6wr . On my office table there 
stands a five or six-thousand-year-old statue of a golden bull which was found in 
Altyndepe. There is a golden statue of a bull bearing the World on its homs to 
the right of Palace of the State Presidency... 

In every comer of our land the golden pages of human development lie hidden. 
Indeed these lands are a treasury of humanity waiting to be discovered. 

This land is the land that has granted many civilizations to the world. 

This land is full of oil, natural gas and underground resources. T rkmenistan is 
one of the richest states of the 


world in terms of underground resources. 30% of the world's oil and natural gas 
reserves lie in T rkmenistan. 

Our peasants know that every handful of this land is more precious than gold or 
jewels. Agriculture began in these lands and this land is the fatherland of white 
wheat. There is no country which can compete with the quality, goodness and 
flavour of fruits, vegetables and cereals grown in this land. 

Beloved T rkmens! This land is the T rkmens; these gardens, plains, deserts, 
mountains and plateaus are lands that we call our homeland. When we say 
homeland our ancestors come to mind and when we say our ancestors our 
homeland comes to our mind. T rkmens who never bowed before sword, spear 
or mace, shall bow to this land and our ancestors and kneel to show reverence 
for them. 

In these sacred lands we have established our independent and permanently 
leutral Republic of T rkmenistan. 

Independent and Neutral T rkmenistan! You are beloved because we found you 
in this sacred land. 

Independent and Neutral T rkmenistan! As the world endures, you will live, 
because we are dedicating our lives to moulding you with love and affection, to 
adorning you with sincerity. 

Independent and Neutral T rkmenistan! You are blessed because you are the 
state which our ancestors, though it was their hearty wish, could not achieve in 
eight centuries. We have built you on the wishes of our ancestors. 

Independent and Neutral T rkmenistan! The T rkmen miracle and 
consecration starts with you. Only Allah is over you. 


There is an interesting tale narrated about Orgenq, the world-famous capital of 
K ne rgenq. In ancient times, the son of Kbne rgenq, yehzade Genq, fell in 
love with a fairylike girl. Since the father of the girl was also a Soltan, he 
bestowed on his son-in-law a caravan-load of gold. The gold he granted was so 
much that the treasury of K ne rgenq could not contain it. Therefore, the 
remainder of the gold was allotted to the people. For the share of posterity, the 
yah also scattered much of this gold over the land of Orgenq, and ploughed it in 
several times. 

rkmen land is the land on which gold was scattered. If you serve such a land, 
it will give back its gold abundantly to you. 

Love your land so that its golden red becomes a crop, you become cheerful and 
the scents of the clumps of flowers permeate everywhere with their sweet 

Love your land so that your love fills your granary like the crops which wave 
like a sea. Your love endows with its blessed favour the plane tree, the 
pomegranate, the apricot, the plum, and the apple. 

Reason and mind shall serve to strengthen our moral independence and 
sovereignty. The doors of our neutral state are always open to the external 
world. However, there must by intvUcqtual labourers at thc,5c, doors. 
AQQcpting idcab and 

thoughts haphazardly does moral damage. We must adapt these values to our 
own moral, intellectual and cultural structure. 

Our ancestors left us examples of the love and respect that must be shown to the 


Here is an example of the T rkmen's love for his fatherland. 

At the period when Oguz Han's state was not yet very powerful, taking 
■advantage of this situation, a powerful state tried to capture Oguz land by war. 

The enemy sent a messenger and demanded the best horse in the Oguz country. 

Oguz Han's commanders put forward their ideas: 

"The enemy is ill-meaning. Let us make war, but let us not give the pedigree 

Oguz Han said to them: 

"It is wrong to prefer the worst, when what is only worse is still possible. One 
never knows, we may lose all our horses if we are defeated. Give him the horse 
and let him 

go. 15y The messenger that took the pedigree horse came back with more 
depressing news. This time the demand of the enemy was the most beautiful girl 
in the country. The commanders said: 

"We can't accept this shameful demand. This time they want us to surrender our 
honour. There is no way out except 
war. 5y 

However, the prudent and far-sighted Oguz Han said: "In case of a war, many a 

brave man may die. One never 

knows what may happen! If the enemy defeats us all at once, all our sisters, 

daughters, brides and wives may become slaves. It is frivolous to prefer the 

worst, when what is worse is still possible." 

The messenger took the most beautiful girl and came 246 

back with a more oppressive proposal, demanding land this time. Oguz Han who 

had realized war was approaching and had prepared his army cried: 

"We shall give our heads, but we will not give land," and immediately he 
declared war. 

He taught the enemy a lesson. 

No historian can be sure of the number of wars which took place on Oguz land, 
but everybody agrees on one point. Every part of this land has been mixed with 
the blood of our brave forefathers and tears of our mothers. You can feel the 
warmth of the hearts and hands of our ancestors in each handful of this terrain. 
The love and affection, the efforts and pains of our ancestors permeate every 
inch of this country. Thousands of poets have described this land. 

In this case, how blessed is this land! 

As the first man and prophet Adam was created in his prime (28) by Allah, the 
Most Exalted, so the T rkmen State was already based on substantial principles 
at its foundation. There is a proliferation of examples of state-building and 
administration in world history. Some states have progressed well in terms of 
their administrative structure. Some of the types of state are: democratic, 
monarchic, theocratic, republic, and socialist. 


Each of these state systems has unique characteristics. We are deriving essential 
and valid methods from each and adapting them to our state administrative 
structure. We also make use of some of the numerous experiences of our 
ancestors which are appropriate for the contemporary world. 

Today, we have founded a state based on golden principles originating from 
T rkmen society's political, economic and cultural structure. We call this style 
of governance The T rkmen Way. This is to the benefit of the T rkmen state 
and people. 

The making of our state is still in process. I hope that the Golden Century will 
be the most splendid and developed era of our state administration. 

We are newly-embarked on a natural process. We have changed to a wholly 
different economic system. Initiating new economic relations, we put forward 
new ideas and ways that can inspire many developed countries of the world. 

We do not hide the fact that we will only follow our own way without imitating 
any state or nation. No person repeats the life of another, nor can a state or 
nation follow the way of another state or nation. The ways may only resemble 
each other. However, in the development and regression of societies, it is 
possible and generally the case that many events occur which are beyond the 
control and will of mankind. 

We feel at every moment the great love of Allah, the Most High, for his own 
creature, humankind. There are 380 thousand kinds of plant in the world. Each 
of them tries to show its beauty to humanity in its own language. For this reason, 
each of them is different in colour, scent and beauty. 


All of these are signs of Allah s love of humankind. Allah, the All-Mighty 
created the universe for humans. Nature, plants, animals, in short, all beings are 
created for humans. Being is the manifestation of Allah's compassion. 

0, my dear countryman! 

Look around you at once at the beauties around you, the manifestations of the 
compassion and mercy of Allah. Conceive that you yourself are the creature of 
Allah's compassion and try to merit that love! 

You must love humanity! 

The meaning of life is mutual love and affection. 

The golden principle of your happiness is hidden in your affection for the world 
and life. 

Man is the most excellent of all creatures. However, this perfection is possible 
only by living in accord with our creation. Man is human insofar as he knows 
himself (his own World) and lives accordingly. This is a completely different 
World. You cannot reach there by technological progress, science or technique. 
Zarathustra, who set out on his camel from Merw 2500 years ago reached these 
worlds and preached: "O, Men! Avoid the Fire and repent, because the sins are 
cleaned with fire in the other world." 

Gorkut Ata also called the Oguzs, who had distanced themselves from being 
human, on a journey toward humani- 
ty 1500 years ago. 
Man must know his status and capacity, and respect human beings. 


Independent and Permanently Neutral Republic of T rkmenistan! 

With my whole heart, I desire your development and progress and devote all my 
life to you. You must be exalted, the great T rkmen State. 

For we founded you on this sacred T rkmen land. 

Our ancestor, Magtymguly, keeping you in his dreams, wrote: 

Know that what I built. 

Is the peg of this world. 

Forever it will stay independent. This is the edifice of the T rkmen. 

It is we who have realized his dreams. 

Independent and Neutral Republic of T rkmenistan! You shall be powerful 
because we established you following our ancestor's way. 

,Your national anthem is the anthem of justice, your emblem is the sign of 

justice. Your green flag is the herald of spring. 

As it was narrated that the Prophet Ibrahim had built the Ka'bah, the last 
Messenger of God, Muhammed, first built a mosque when he migrated from 
Mekka to Medina, before building himself a house. 

Beginning in the name of Allah, we constructed a magnificent mosque, first in 
Gypjak and then in the middle of A gabat. Later on, we built a beautiful 
mosque in G kdepe 


in the memory of the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for this country. 

0, my beloved citizens, my dear people! May your heads be held high, and your 

spirits raised! Walk with pride, and be honourable, because you have this good 


My brother, my beloved sister, my dear mothers! Never scowl, live happily 
because you have this good state. 

Let's live, work, produce, reach our target, and so leave our future generations a 
stable, independent and neutral T rkmenistan as a legacy. 
Let the state be our legacy to the generations. 

As Gorkut Ata said, we are leaving a developed, powerful, rich and stable state 
to our children. There can be no happiness greater than this. 



B elo ved T rkmen people ! 

There can be no tree without a root, no building without a foundation. Our 
people have lived in tough conditions for the last 3-4 centuries; our dreams of 
unity did not come true. We lived as scattered masses. Our body broke into 
gpieces, as if our head was somewhere and our legs and arms were somewhere 

else. So, the tree of life did not flourish, the state building could not stand on a 
firm basis and good fortune did not smile on my nation. 

Idid not rest by day or night until your head could be held high, and your heart 
had faith and hope, and your hearth was blessed. Thanks to Allah, and by His 
Grace and Mercy, in the blessed country of our ancestors we established a new 
independent state after many centuries. We prepared everything needed for each 
of our citizens and introduced our state to the other nations of the world and 
developed countries, and had it recognized. From now on, may our state be 
stable and eternal. I thank Allah, the Most Merciful, a thousand times for 
allowing me to gain for my country the neutral status which is a special privilege 
in the world. 

My beloved nation! 


Our ancestors, Soltans, Hans and begs clothed the naked and fed the hungry. 
They did not do this for reputation, glory and fame, but for the pleasure of Allah, ^ 
the Truth. 

Istarted building the state from the hearth of our people. Essential necessities, 
such as flour, natural gas, electric, salt and water, we made free. We expect no 
return for this policy. Our real intention is that our people live in comfort, be the 
owners and masters of our own natural resources, and be always proud and 
dignified beside others. 

After the appropriate utilization of the economic resources of the country, we 
turn to the greatest and most significant issue, the moral and spiritual health of 
the people. 

The State: The Independent T rkmen state was founded after 600 years. The 
significance of today's T rkmen State can be understood better when examined 
from a historical perspective. When the period in which T rkmens lived 
without a state is compared with today, it is seen that the state is the only 
principle that unites the people. 

The People: It is the group of people which emerged as a result of free and non- 
obligatory relations between different strata of society. There is no political aim 
or illegal sanction in the relations between people. 

The Nation: It is the unity that owns the state organization. 

The Language: The T rkmen language is the one with a wealth of words, 
expressions and meanings. 

The People is a group of people, but the nation is the unity. The group refers to 
quantity, where unity is related to quality. Also unity refers to organization and 
the formation of 


institutions. The People transforms into a nation when it makes use of its 
capacity to be organized intemally according to differing political, economic and 
social norms. Institutionalisation concludes with the state. 

The nation is the unity of language, religion, customs and tradition, ideals and 
state. When this unity is composed, the fortune of the people is enhanced. The 
meaning of the state for a nation is the same as the meaning of the house and 
other necessities for a couple who will build a new family. 

The state is like a grand family. Certain duties and places are attributed to each 
member in this family in order to establish order. If these duties are performed 
properly, the state lives long. 

The fundamental feature of our state is its being a nation-state. This trait can be 
understood better when compared with the Soviets who ruled us for 70 years. 
Soviet domination worked to keep the T rkmens, who are the real owners of 
this land, backward rather than to make the country develop and progress. The 
Soviets did not only exploit the natural resources of T rkmen for their sake and 
the sake of others but also tried to annihilate completely the national and moral 
values of the T rkmens. 

The Ttirkmen nation-state is the only owner of this country. 'Nation- state' means 
a state that uses the material resources and natural wealth of the country for its 
nation, and protects the moral values of its people and respects them. That is to 
say, the state is bom and survives as the system that organizes the historical life 
of a nation. 


Rule: As a form of administration, the state is composed of these three systems: 

1) Laws 

2) State Institutions 

3) Local Administrations 

The state's legislative organ is sovereign. The People's Council (Halk 
Maslahaty) is the Legislative organ of the T rkmenistan state. Government is 
the executive organ and is regulated by laws made by the sovereign state. 

-T rkmenistan is a democratic, law-based and secular state, in which the rule of 

the state is implemented in the form of a presidential republic. 

T rkmenistan has ultimate and complete control of its territory and 
independently conducts its domestic and foreign policy. The state of 
T rkmenistan is unitary and indivisible. 

To defend the independence and territorial integrity of T rkmenistan and to 
ensure independent functioning of the legislative, executive and judiciary 
branches are the fundamental duties of the state. 

The People are the sole source of power in T rkmenistan. Sovereignty belongs 
unconditionally to the nation. The People of Ttirkmenistan exercise their 
sovereignty directly or through representative bodies. 

io part of the People nor any organization, institution or individual has the right ' 
to appropriate power in the state. 

Human beings are the highest value of the society and state in T rkmenistan. 


The state is responsible to each citizen and ensures the creation of conditions for 
the free development of each personality. The life, honour, dignity and freedom, 
personal inviolability, and the natural and inalienable rights of the citizen are 

Each citizen is responsible for the fulfilment of duties placed upon him by the 
Constitution and laws. 

The state is based on the principle of separation of powers - the legislative, the 
executive and the judiciary- which shall exercise their authority independently 
and interactively. 

The duties and responsibilities of the state and all its bodies and officials are 
•jdetermined according to the Law. 

The T rkmenistan Constitution is the supreme Law of the state. The norms and 
provisions stipulated therein have direct effect. Laws and other legal acts that 
contradict the Constitution do not have legal force. 

All the Legal information concerning the state bodies is published for general 
dissemination or made public in other ways, with the exception of that 
containing state secrets or private information guaranteed by law. Legal acts 
affecting the rights and freedoms of citizens that are not generally disseminated 
gbecome invalid from the moment of their adoption. 

rkmenistan recognizes the priority of the generally accepted standards of 
international law. T rkmenistan is a full member of United Nations and adheres 
in its foreign policy to the principles of peaceful coexistence, rejection of the use 
of force, and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. 


T rkmenistan has its own Citizenship Law. Citizenship can be acquired, 
retained and fortified in accordance with the law. 

Acitizen of T rkmenistan may not be turned over to another state or deported 
from T rkmenistan and deprived of his right to turn his motherland. 

Citizens of T rkmenistan are guaranteed the protection and patronage of the 
state, both in the territory of T rkmenistan and beyond its borders. 

Foreign citizens and/or stateless persons enjoy the rights and freedoms of 
citizens of T rkmenistan unless otherwise prescribed by law. 

The T rkmenistan state grants the right of asylum to foreign citizens persecuted ^ 
in their countries for political, national or religious convictions. 

Property is inviolable in T rkmenistan. T rkmenistan confirms the right of 
private ownership of the means of production, land and other material and 
intellectual assets. These may likewise belong to individuals, corporate bodies 
and the state. The state guarantees equal protection and equal conditions for the 
development of all types and forms of property. 

The state guarantees the freedom of belief and worship for all religions and their 
equality before the law. Religious organizations are separate from the state and 
are not permitted to interfere in state affairs. The state educational system is 
separated from religious organizations and is of a secular nature. 

Everybody has the right to define his attitude towards religion, to profess any 
religion or not to profess any, either 


I individually or jointly with others, to disseminate and publicize his beliefs 
I concerning religion and to participate in the practice of religious cults, rituals 
I and rites. 

I In order to protect its territory, T rkmenistan state has its own army. 

^^r_rkmenistan guarantees equal rights and freedoms to its citizens, as w ell as the_ 

equality of citizens before the law irrespective of nationality, origin, property, 
status or official position, place of residence, language, attitude towards religion, 
or membership of any party, association or institution. 

Men and women have equal civil rights in T rkmenistan. The violation of equality 
I entails liability under the law. 

■The exercise of rights and freedoms cannot violate the rights and freedoms of other 
Fpersons or the requirements of morality or public order or cause a threat to national 
i security. 

Every person has the right to life. No one may be deprived of life. The People supported 
my speech on the abolition of capital punishment. The World Community welcomed this 
significant initiative. 

Acitizen may not have his rights restricted or be denied the rights belonging to him, or 
condemned, or subjected to punishment, other than in clear accordance with the law and 
upon the decision of a court. 

Every citizen has the right to the support of the state in receiving well-appointed living 
space and in construction of individual housing. There exists the inviolability of private 
property. For the Ttirkmen, the house is sacred. For this reason I abolished unlawful 

[within T rkmenistan. 

Women and men, upon attaining the age of marriage, have the right to marry and to 
create a family by mutual consent. Spouses have equal rights in family relations. 

Parents or legal guardians have the right and obligation to raise their children, care for 
their health, development and education, prepare them for life, and to instill respect for 

I laws and historical and national traditions in them. Adult children are obliged to render 

Itheir parents assistance. 

tach citizen has the right to participate in managing the affairs of society and the state, 
directly and through his or her freely elected representatives. 

Citizens have the right to elect and to be elected to bodies of state government. 

The citizens of T rkmenistan in accordance with their capabilities and professional 
training have equal right of access to the civil service. 

All citizens have the right to work, to select at their own discretion a profession, type of 
employment, and place of work, and to healthy and safe working conditions. Forced 

Persons who work for hire have the right to payment corresponding to the amount and 

quality of their work. This compensation shall not be less than the established minimum 


Workers have the right to rest and leisure. For persons who work for hire, this right shall 

be reflected in the establishment of work hours of limited duration, provision of paid 


annual vacation, and weekly days off. 

The state has the responsibility to create conditions that are conducive to relaxation at 
the place of residence and rational use of free time. 

Citizens have the right to health protection, including free use of a network of state 
healthcare institutions. Paid medical services shall be permitted on the basis and in the 
manner established by law. 

Citizens have the right to social security in their old age, and in the case of illness, 
■disability, loss of work capacity, loss of the breadwinner, and unemployment. 

Families with many children, children who have lost their parents, war veterans, and 
other persons who have lost their health while defending state or public interests shall be 
provided additional support and privileges from public resources. 

The procedures and conditions for benefiting from these rights are arranged by law. 

Each citizen has the right to education. General secondary education is obligatory, and 
everyone shall have the right to obtain this for free at state educational institutions. 

Organizations and citizens shall have the right to establish paid educational institutions 
in accordance with the law. 

All citizens of T rkmenistan may practise any kind of art. The legal rights of citizens in 
the areas of scientific, technical, artistic and cultural activity are protected by law. 




Exercise of rights and freedoms are inseparable from the performance by a citizen and a 
person of his or her obligations to the society and the state. 

The defence of T rkmenistan is the sacred duty of every person. For male citizens of 

IT rkmenistan, there is universal compulsory military service 
Citizens of T rkmenistan are obliged to pay taxes and other payments in the manner and 
amounts established by law. 

No one shall be forced to give evidence against himself or close relatives 
The highest representative body of popular power is the People's Council (Halk 
Maslahaty) of T rkmenistan. 

T rkmenistan's administrative system consists of great provinces (welayats), provinces 
l(etrap), districts (shakhers), boroughs and villages in which central and local 
administrative bodies are formed. 

The People's Council includes: - the President; 
■ the deputies of the Parliament (Mejlis); 

■People's Representatives who are elected from provinces and districts for a period of 
five years and for the services they make they are not paid. 

The President, the Parliament, the Cabinet, or not less than one quarter of the established 
number of members of the People's Council have the right to submit bills for the 
consideration of the People's Council. 


rThe work of the People's Council is chaired by the President or any member elected by 
ythe Peo ple's Coun cil. ^ 



"The state is the essence of the national spirit. That is why the nation state is the " 

reahzation of the moral and spiritual values that belong to the nation and a symbol of the 
I combination of unity with political will. 

Our ancestors had the custom of all coming together and building a house for one of 
their number. Similarly, in the establishment of the foundations of the state, we came 
together and established the structure of our state following the same custom. It is the 
essential duty of every citizen of ours now to consolidate this structure, which will 
disseminate its light to the whole world, and to exert all their efforts for it to reach its 
goal - to enter the Golden Age. 

To give priority to, show respect for, and refer to the opinions, intelligence, wisdom and 
experience of the elderly has been one of the ethical values of the Tijrkmen state since 
ancient times. This value is one of the main principles of the modem T rkmen state we 
have established. The most essential element in establishing the state is to take into 
account national values, history, worldview and so on. That is why the Halk Maslahaty, 
■the People's Council, is the principal organ of the state administration, and it should 
'remain so in the future. In this way, we will have retained the experience of state which 
belongs to our national history. 

I The high spiritual dynamics which belong to the nation have become whole in the state. 
■The natural catastrophes which hit the Ttirkmens in the last few centuries occurred 
'because such high and spiritual values had not come together. To serve the state is to 
strengthen the internal dynamics 


that belong to the nation. Serving the state guarantees the present and future of the whole 

The nation-state is the historical method of realizing the essence of the national outlook. 
By means of a nation-state the values belonging to a nation are integrated. Such 
integration regulates national life historically and gives it direction. Establishing a 
nation-state is the expression of a nation's respect for its history and its trust in the future. 
A nation state cannot be like a tree which has been brought from a different country and 
climate and re-planted and which does not flourish but dies because it is unable to adapt 
to the new climate. On the contrary, it must be bom and bred in the soil of this land, 
Irooted deeply in it, and stretching up into its sky. It is certain that imitation does not 
yield positive results in any field, and the dangers of imitation for the interests, benefit 
and the future of the people and nation are of an enormous scale and dimension. 

The establishment of a state is the action of a nation gaining existence for itself. New 

[values, which did not exist before, in the social, economic, political and spiritual fields 
are gained. 

To be respectful to other nations and to respect and revere the faiths and principles of the 
adherents of other religions lies in the T rkmen's blood. The T rkmens are of a nation 
which is generous, humanitarian, just, open-hearted, patient, contented and sincere. 
Showing the utmost respect to other nations has always been a characteristic of the 
T rkmens. There have not been any national disputes and conflicts among the 
Ttirkmens, and let there never be in the future either. 
The internal disturbances, which have happened in the 


■last eight centuries, taught the T rkmens well what separatist movements mean. For 
eight centuries, states near and far have pursued the policy of 'divide, destroy and rule', 
instigated unrest, stirred up disagreements, and caused either small- or large-scale 
conflicts among the T rkmens. 

That is why it is no coincidence that we find so many mentions of unity, togetherness 
and solidarity in the works of hundreds of our poets. On the declaration of the 
Independence of T rkmenistan State, all our people acknowledged this as the nation- 
state awaited for eight centuries. 


All the T rkmens and the rest, the Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Azeris, Belujs and 
Armenians, united, bind all their hopes to T rkmenistan. 

Independent and Impartial T rkmenistan is a rich state, and as long as unity and 
solidarity are maintained and preserved, people will prosper. Every Tijrkmen 
understands this very well. 

In no part of T rkmenistan today, is there any disagreement with or belittling of one 
another. There is political stability in T rkmenistan. All the ethnic groups live with a 
single view or understanding, that is, in friendship and brotherhood. 

There are no political prisoners or restrictions in T rkmenistan. 

We, in our independent and impartial T rkmenistan, have established our own national 
military forces to maintain national security, to protect and patrol our borders. 

On some occasions people consider that their personal 


rights are being violated even when they are legally questioned and prosecuted. On some 
occasions, individual rights are violated for the sake of another person without any legal 
grounds. This can happen to anyone and this should be properly investigated and 
remedied by the state. 

rin short, the issues, which need to be investigated and dealt with are numerous. What is 
^imp ortant in all these is that every citizen should know fully his or her rights, duties and j 

liabilities, and retain his or her trust in the law, and belief that the law is just and 

We, the T rkmen, became accustomed to ill and unjust treatment. During the 74 years 
lof Soviet domination, we were oppressed and we were not allowed to express our own 
opinions. But we bore all this. In all the administrative meetings of the central 
Committee of the Communist party, and in the General Assembly and Congress, in the 
Parliament, and in Moscow, we, the T rkmens, were criticised in a profound sense. This 
became a custom then. They always accused and belittled the T rkmens for not having 
been able to rid themselves of the so-called harmful remnants and effects of the past, of 
having an undeveloped social thinking, and of being backward economically, all of 
which accusations were beyond any comprehension. However, as some of us started to 
take all these seriously and to appropriate them to ourselves, we started to undermine one 
another, which, moreover, became normal for us. In that sense, some of our own writers 
went further and started conceitedly to criticise harshly and unjustly our shared traditions 
and customs and the moral values belonging to our nation. That in turn brought about 
mutual recriminations among people, and thus national pride and the honour and self- 
esteem of our people 


and history were lost. Unfortunately, the T rkmens perpetrated such acts against each 

Ihave learned all the details of the 74 years of T rkmen history under the Soviet era 
inside out. In all those only the conflicts and clashes of the T rkmens among themselves 
were mentioned, whereas not a single word was mentioned concerning the rich historical 
past and works of the T rkmens, as if such a history had never been lived and as if d 

anything matters as long as it concerns the present. The destiny of our nation and people " 
was taken into consideration and valued through that only. It was indeed very difficult to , 
produce alternative solutions to those too. All the issues on whatever related to Russia I 
and the general problems of the USSR were shown and imposed as issues and problems " 
belonging to the T rkmens. 

The basic reason for these events was the struggle between the Bolsheviks and 
Mensheviks (i.e. the socialists and anti-socialists) during the 20s and 30s. During the 30s 
and 40s the nationalists were labelled as fascist and "the unity groups" of atheists were 
against them. In truth, during this period there was an ongoing conflict within which 
there were show trials, prosecutions and massacres. This struggle was carried out under 
different names. Like all the other nations of the USSR, The T rkmens were not 
permitted to do any research into their history and destiny. 

Were the T rkmens guilty in these events? If so, to what extent? This question is of 
importance to us. We know it is impossible to erase the reality that the USSR was 
founded in 1922. During those years in all the Soviets, the internal conflicts continued 
gceaselessly. However we must admit that the T rkmens damaged themselves_^^^^^^ 

mercilessly. The conflicts in 


the names of new and old, religion and atheism were weakening the Ttirkmens and the 
same struggles brought them to vanishing point. The worst such struggles were tolerated. 
During the war years, the 40s and 50s, a new purge within the party was begun. The 
struggle against nationalism was continued by a different method. This struggle 
continued during the 50s and 60s. Some intellectuals were blamed and were exiled to 
deprived regions of the USSR. 

Thanks to the achievements of the 60s and 70s, fulsome praise became a fashion: many 
persons and institutions were praised. Exaggeration and delusion became common. This 
was a social disease and it demonstrated the heartbreaking condition of society. To tell 
the truth it is impossible to show a single healthy period during those 74 years. Political 
thought became dominant and people forgot how to think freely. They became 
accustomed to toadying and to delivering speeches praising the party. The individual had 
no significance, and in the social context the status of the individual was completely 
destroyed. Social ideas were praised but individual responsibility was ignored; the 
administrative system was established according to this principle. In this way these 
principles were presented to people as the successes of Soviet democracy. However all 
the things cited were nothing but worthless developments. These slogans became part of 
our society's character and they became a social disease. 

I Today it is so difficult to recover from those diseases. This is the most important and 
immediate duty in our Golden Century. 

Dear Citizens! 

I have repeated many times in my speeches that the 


T rkmens in history were not defeated by external forces but were defeated by internal 

forces. My aim was to draw your attention to the reality that as a nation we should learn 

a lesson from history and we should re-organize our life according to this. Gorkut Ata 

advised that there are three reasons for any possible calamity and misfortune, and these 

are: disagreement, egoism and taking something which is unlawful according to religion. 

We should heed Gorkut Ata's advice. 

My Beloved T rkmen nation! 

Each citizen should work hard for the progress of our independent and neutral state, and 
should strive for its eternal endurance, and should try to remove any obstacle that might 
prevent our state's steady progress. 

Many things are the direct responsibility of officials. 1, as President, have to be very 
careful when appointing new governors that they are sensitive to the nation's and the 
country's interests, that they are trustworthy, and that they are sincere in the performance 
iOf their duties. For the selecti on of new civil servants we have to ratify a nation al act in j 

our National Congress. This act shall set out the following: what are the prerequisites of 
being a civil servant, the rules governing appointments, civil servant posts in official 
bureaus and new cadres, and the boundaries of delegated power. Each citizen's right to 
enter the civil service should be protected. In the selection of civil servants nationality, 
■citizenship, economic and official status, domicile and region, and faith should not be 
taken into consideration. Only their abilities and capabilities in a merit system should be 
considered. Officials should appoint those who are capable and competent in their work 
and should check the work carried out by them. If a manager is successful, there will be 
progress and responsibility in his unit or department. 


The appointment of those who are loyal to the nation according to their capabilities to 
the proper duties and posts is very important. An administrator, rather than for his own 

Eersonal interests, should care for the interests of his nation, people and state, 
vant to emphasize seven elements which can damage the progress of the state: 
irst element: unqualified officials 
.Second element: the spread of tribal and sectarian consciousness 

Third element: disagreements between people and tribes 
Fourth element: religious and sectarian conflicts 

[Fifth element: disagreements with neighbouring countries 

Sixth element: domestic turmoil 

Seventh element: the effects of natural catastrophes. 

1, as the first President of Independent and Permanently Neutral T rkmenistan, accept 
as one of my basic duties the responsibility for preventing the development of the seven 
elements cited above. I advise the presidents who will succeed me to be sensitive to 
them, always take them into consideration, and work hard in order to prevent the 
development of such calamities which might harm our state. 

They Said 




The snow-capped K petdag has a lovely tune, they said, ' 

Roars from time to time like a young man burned inside, they said. 

Has rains coming with thunder and lightning, they said. 

Wandering the T rkmen land, there is a lot worth looting, they said. 

There is the wisdom of Gorkut-Ata on her mountains, they said. 

Her valleys and mountain ranges are like paradise The shadows of the clouds roam over 
her ravines. 

The K petdag is no ordinary mountain, this is the spring of a fortune. 

The K 'ten, Hasar and Balkan mountains and the whole T rkmen world. 

There is the majesty of Oguz Han on their mountains, they said. 

Tigers roar in her canyons and her summits are cloudy. 

Her mountains where the eagles nest on their heights remain always young. 

The great land, on her outskirts mountain cities are built, is safe. 

There are bowers in Candybil and the future is the time of magnificence, 


There are the messages of G rogly on her mountains, they said. 

One of my sides is Garagum, which is a caravan migrating, 

iKills those who come as enemies and gives the Ttirkmen freedom. 

When angered, rises in fury like a tornado and flood. Like a witness who saw the 
creation of the world. 

The desert with Hydyr, which Magtymguly certifies so, they said. 


You are T rkmen 

Let's, my heart, walk my heart. Let's look around our land. 

With lions in its fields, the beautiful land of T rkmen. 

Now the day has come for the poor, sad, brave, men. 

You are the T rkmen, with such heroes like Jelaleddin. 

,et's select a thousand- winged horse 

nd travel praying over her plains and mountains 
And seek for the ancestors who became part of them. 
And You are the T rkmen which hosts 360 saints 


The old people are as wise as Gorkut 

The mothers are as merciful as yunus 

If you feel lonely and sigh, you see compassion 

You are the T rkmen with beautiful houri-like girls like Agayunus 

You are braver than the brave, just find an opponent as you are 

You are a lion more than a lion, just find a battle field for you Let your cream boil over 
always, never feel the lack of it. 

You are the T rkmen, with Garagum, so many minerals in its core 


[History is your ancestors and grand children 
And grandfathers, father, children and nation, 
entering the most fortified palaces with your horse. 

You are the T rkmen with strong and agile arms. 
The rich and noble are godly like saints 
■Your horsetail- standard is always hoisted brightly, 
You words are fine, pleasing, and heart is illuminated 
You are the T rkmen, with his face and heart smiling 
Oguz is your forefather, and Gorkut is your master. 
Your memory is the history of the sixty ages. 


Your Garagum is your table and treasure. 

Your provision is blessed, you are the prosperous T rkmen. 


In My Motherland 

Oh my crazy soul! Conceiving wishes and peace I find in my motherland. 
Determination, leaming, diligence, fame, glory, I find in my motherland. 
The winter over the raging spring I find in my motherland, 

Mouming my death and rejoicing over my birth-relations I find in my motherland, 
bsurdity of living abroad and the cherished birth place I find in my motherland. 
Through its deserts I roamed and its mountains I took for my protection 
And the breeze that blew from the valleys I took for Allah's blessings 
Its deserts, rivers, and mountains, I took for the edifice the True One Built, 
iThe dutar became the source of my wisdom, while the great jangling of the gyjak was 

the pain of my soul 

The goal I pursue hard and endless riches and wealth, I find in my motherland, 


Grazed our cattle and tended it by nights, roaming over all the Ahal plains without naps. 

Heard the voices of my ancestors in its thunder claps, 
I And my dear mother's groan in the melodies sung by winds, 
"Lone I was left, in this world orphan, between Arsh and Kursi, 

Alas I lament my soul set on fire, but the place I worship in I find in my motherland. 

For I am AK ly's son, my head I hold high. 

Going through fire and Water never did I complain 

Farewell to the bad lot, let me this life enjoy 

Time and again the True One and my Lord I pray 

My past, my future, amass great wealth I find in my motherland. 


Every nation in the world, every reasonable and conscious member of a nation, every 
community... is busy finding the way to the best development and finding and 
establishing their own position in the course of history in our age. 

[No one can separate himself from this historical progress because the past does 
not guarantee that things will be all right if he disregards the future. The past is a 
kind of fulcrum on which our future decisions and jobs turn. Our decisions and 
plans for the future will be successful as long as they are in accord with the 
demands and developments of the future. This is most probably a feature of the 
new age. 

Today, time passes so fast; this is just a point between the eternity of the past 
and the future. However time offers the opportunity to determine the future if it 
is recognized in and appropriate manner. This age shapes the a conscious 
worldview of the nation and guarantees the future of the nation. At the 
beginning of the third millennium, there are several important issues waiting for 
the T rkmen people to resolve immediately. These are issues of our people's 
political, economic, scientific, civic, health and social life. 

If our government solves these problems in time, our unity and cooperation will 
survive in our country. The basic principle of independent T rkmen state is to 
believe in Allah, the Most Exalted, in our religion. This is trust in ourselves and 
humanity. This is confidence in man's power to affect the progress of human 
history and in the victory of productive and peaceful qualities. This is also our 
major philosophy of international relations and shapes our approach to foreign 
policy and our philosophy of development. 

One of the most important problems of our age is to establish a healthy, just and 
mutually agreed and beneficial, 


functioning relationship between the countries whose level of social, economic 
and industrial developments are not equal. Countries or continents cannot be 
blamed for problems which have become apparent recently in all their aspects 
but which in fact have accumulated over the past decades or centuries. 

Never before has the world witnessed such a high level of injustice and 
disequilibrium among the nations in terms of sharing and benefiting from the 
wealth and resources of the world. Such danger, which shakes all the trust and 
stability of the whole world, has never been felt so clearly. Many hot conflicts 
and ethnic problems now ongoing arise from this inequality among nations in 
terms of social and economic interests. Bringing clashes between faiths and 
civilizations to the world agenda and defining them as "crusades" under present 
circumstances does nothing but distort the facts and add fuel to the flames. The 
real problem is not the conflict between the Eastern and Western ideas, 
worldviews or clashes between the different religions. On the contrary, it is the 
irreconcilability of the present forms of international economic relations, which 
have been concealed up until now, with the current social and political 
configuration of the world. This is one of the characteristics of the 21st century. 

rkmenistan accepts mutual respect, conciliation, reconciliation and 
humanism as the basis of international relations, and employs the same 
principles in its domestic politics as well. T rkmenistan maintains and works 
for domestic, regional and international peace, welfare and social cooperation, 
and it sustains the same principles within its own society and state. 


The day T rkmenistan became independent humans became the most important 
asset of the state. The State holds very highly its citizens' lives, health, security, 
prosperity, education and excellence in physical and spiritual development. 
Social security in society is given its due top priority, and the necessary 
decisions, policies and infrastructure related to these have been completed. 
These developments contributed to social and political stability, and social trust 
in the new implementations grew. Thanks to new policies accepted and carried 
out in T rkmenistan, during the days following independence the rate of infant 
mortality fell, the average age and longevity increased, and the crime rate 
decreased. Also, the state took the protection of the health of infants and 
mothers, and the rights of children, youth and women under its own guarantee 
and protection. 

The social policy of the T rkmenistan state is declared in the program of "The 
Basic Targets of Social and Economic Development Policy, The Main Targets 
Until 201 0. " The aim of the economic development policies since 
independence is to improve the social and economic conditions of the people. 
Today Ttirkmenistan is among the countries that produce all the grain it needs. 
Our country has accomplished the main parts of its program for economic 
stability. It is pleasing to see that the T rkmen people's endeavours and 
industriousness is praised among the nations of the world. 

The main development plan in T rkmenistan entails setting the value of 18% as 
a minimum limit of progress in every different economic domain. Another 
important aim is to increase our production by 2010. As always, the fuel and 
energy sectors are very important in this domain. We plan to invest in different 
areas, which entails huge investment costs. 


Considering current potential, the futures of several sectors are promising, for 
example, agriculture, food industry, tourism, house construction and 
infrastructure services. The main target in agriculture until 2010 is to increase 
the production of grain and cotton. In 2005 the projection for production of 
cotton is 2.5 million tons and for wheat 2.5 million tons. This year 2 million tons 
of wheat was produced. Let's make a comparison. During the early years of 
tT rkmenistan, 70 000 tons of wheat were produced. These numbers are the 

fruits of independence reflecting our endeavours to contribute to the production 
of the basic needs of our people and humanity. In order to enhance our national 
economy existing opportunities and resources are being considered and re- 
considered for possible new developments. This also entails investing in fertile 
and productive areas. It is planned to increase fiscal sources fixed for 
investments 2.7 times in 2010 as compared with 2000. 

Economic development is not enough to improve the conditions of our people. 
This only sustains the essential conditions. For this reason our law must pay 
attention to and resolve the social problems of our nation in a pre-planned and 
targeted way. 

The basis of T rkmenistan's social policy until 201 will be the improvement 
of people's standard of living. the past, the important parts of the budget 
are fixed for this aim. With respect to people's standard of living, the 
construction of new social facilities and the improvement of current 
infrastructure facilities are among our most important targets. It is especially 
emphasized that natural gas, water, electricity and salt are supplied to the people 
free of charge. Those who live below the level of average income should be 
supported and protected. 


The growth in the private sector is of importance in our development strategies. 
The number of private business enterprises in this realm will increase 
remarkably. Development strategies will progress speedily with the 
improvement of private, public and mixed enterprises, the organization of 
agricultural cooperatives, and the legal arrangement of the related subjects in 
this context. In the context of the development plan three thousand state-owned 
corporations will be privatized. 

Our aim is to make T rkmenistan a developed country and make it a valued and 
sacred home for every citizen. All the state programs of independent 
T rkmenistan have as their aim the improvement of people's standard of living 
and protection of its citizens rights without any exception. 

In the related session of the Halk Maslahaty (the National Council) in 1999, 
capital punishment was abolished in law. With the intention of improving the 
social life a general pardon was enacted by the congress in T rkmenistan on the 
sacred occasion of Kadyr night. 

These policies help people to find the true path, listen to their conscience and 
thus reform and find a new, proper direction for their lives. They also display 
our determination to establish a democratic, humanitarian, and just social 
welfare state, respecting the principles of human rights and freedom. We are 
■also proud of the fact that we are the first of the states which gained their 

independence recently to realize the developments laid out above. 

It is well-known by all that all events are interrelated and interdependent today. 
The line of development of events is as follows: citizen- state-region-continent- 


Thus, no matter its size and importance each nation and state with respect to its 
capacity should accept its responsibility to contribute to humanity within the 
context of this chain. This reflects T rkmenistan's way of resolving issues in 
her domestic and foreign policies. Within this context, economic and political 
immorality and arbitrariness should never be given a chance. That some 
international organisations, states or financial centres provide financial 
assistance for a country should not mean by any means that the law of the 
sovereignty of that receiver state or its independence can be taken lightly. Real 
power is the respect for truth itself, which is a feature of our new century. Such a 
manner, policy and application has been the basic approach of T rkmenistan in 
the past and at present. This principle is in accord with the T rkmen nation's 
ethical character and its political understanding, which forms the basis of the 
state's neutrality. 

The National Council of T rkmenistan that convened on 27 December 1999 
accepted the document, "A Declaration on T rkmenistan's Foreign Policy of 21 
s' Century that Depends on Neutrality, Peace-loving, Good Neighborhood 
Relations, and Democratic Principles". In this historic document it is declared 
that T rkmenistan as a neutral state has and employs a foreign policy related to 
love and respect for human life, full respect for democracy, and protection of 
human rights and freedom. These principles are the basis of T rkmen foreign, 
policy and diplomacy. 

T rkmenistan accepts international human rights standards accepted by other 
members of the international community. It was also stated in the document that 
T rkmenistan 


low and in the future is willing to cooperate with the United Nations, 
ly dear nation! 

We are all the people of the 21st century. Since we have difficult and important 
duties to face in the future, we should unite all our efforts and strengths. At the 
same time we should take care of our individual or private responsibilities. This 
is the politico-ideal structure of T rkmenistan. It is defined by its own 
■development process within this age and millennium. When all the T rkmens 

unite all their strengths 

and are united, T rkmens will transform the 21st century into 

a more secure, just, prosperous and happier age than the 20th century, and make 
this new age the Golden century of the T rkmens. 


May the T rkmen Country be Safe and Secure 

God, bless and save our great people! 
Make my Ttirkmen country safe and secure 

1 revere my land 

May my T rkmen country be safe and secure 
May the route we take be safe and secure. 

The heart is a bird, let it fly to the sky 

May each citizen embrace his fortune 

Our generations are stable. 

May my T rkmen country be safe and secure 

May happiness be your companion. 

May my green flag wave 

May our people and country become prosperous 
May our name be renowned 
May my T rkmen country be safe and secure 
May it always be the Golden Era, 

My ancestor's sincere wish, 

Which Pyragy passed away without having seen 
We made it the Independent State 
May my T rkmen country be safe and secure 
May all our routes be proper and lawful 

May all the T rkmens rise from the hearth 

Lion is the T rkmen, valiant is the T rkmen 

God is your Companion, T rkmen 

_May my T rkmen country be safe and secure 

lay the future be the Golden Era. 





My dear people! 

My beloved countrymen! 

If eel we are one and the same. I am no different from you. I hide nothing from you. Your joy 
and happiness are mine too. I am pleased to serve you and to fulfil my responsibilities for 
the purpose of making your lives easier. To achieve this end we have prepared the essential 
conditions to grant you free access to the lands that you need to cover your daily expenses 
including gas, electricity, food and agricultural products. We have also arranged that those 
accommodated in public housing will not be liable to pay any fees. And those in need will 
be able to have access to essential foodstuffs. We have worked to provide you with peace 
and tranquillity. We have done all these in line with the law. 

Ihave thought since my youth that whenever a people has access to these facilities, the nation 
that forms the basis of the state will elevate spiritually. Our present success is the fruition of 
our Independence and eternal Impartiality. 

May your spiritual power be raised! Let our spiritual strength be an example to the world at 

When I talk of the spiritual world of the T rkmen, I speak of his morally high mode, his 
awareness of the fact that mankind always lives on hope, his confidence in his country, 
nation and justice, and of his certainty that his needs and desires will be met. 

When man loses hope, his spirit is drowned and he 


becomes disappointed. A man should have feelings of mercy, honesty, justice, spiritual 
loftiness, an ideal to maintain integrity, a love of his nation, neighbours, fellow citizens and 
his country in his heart. 

Allah bestowed upon man a body and spirit when He created him. The individual spiritual 
strength of men contributes to the moral elevation of a society. If a man is strong spiritually, 
Ithe society he belongs to will have the same strength. 

when one thinks of the concept of time in its peculiar conditions, one can see life shrink into 
a single entity or being. That being neither speaks nor hears. However it expresses itself 
through the winds whirling over the endless Garagum desert, and the winds surfing through 
the peaks of the waves of the Caspian Sea, and the gentle breezes that flow down from J 


pVIount Kbpet. And this has a bearing on the T rkmen spirit. 

The silence that arises from the tongue of centuries rings in my ears; my ancestors whose 
voices became the sound of the Garagum wind, whose vision turned into the horizon of the 
T rkmen desert, whose high spirits changed into the clouds in the sky, whose honourable 
love became springs under the ground, whose painstaking efforts turned into the T rkmen 
Sun, whose shadows formed the shadow of Mount K pet, whose bones turned into 
T rkmen soil, for five thousand years have been making my soul exuberant and adding to 
my spiritual strength. 

Just as the ear of wheat sown into good land comes back to life and gains vitality again, so 
■ too are the souls of our ancestors regenerating in my soul. Spiritual ideals transfer from one 
f soul to another. These ideals regenerate in the souls 


lof future generations. 

"The spiritual life has three essential components. These are the mind, wisdom and memory. 
The first two we inherit from our forefathers. I always see the making of human life and 
maturity in two periods. 

The first period is the one in which the person does not know about or recognize himself. 
The second is the one when man starts to know and recognize himself. The period which 
starts after man gets to know himself is called the period of memory. In this period the 
human memory grows to completion and he remembers the events and happenings that take 
place in this period. In other words, this period is the individual and personal life. The man 
lives off the experiences of the lives of his ancestors before this period. It is wisdom that 
presides over this earlier period. This wisdom includes properties inherited from our 
forefathers, such as body, blood, creativity, renewal, productivity and mobility. 




he noble spirit of his ancestors makes the T rkmen very active and joyous in his spiritual 
world. This spirit is the source of his love for the T rkmen nation, language, religion, 
nature, music, of his love for his family and life, in sum, for all proper traditions. 

The T rkmen nation had a national character from its birth. This character adopted different 
qualities at different times but it has not lost its core values and has progressed continuously 
over five periods. 

The first age of the T rkmen Spirit is the period from BC 5000 to AD 650. The spiritual 
leader of the nation in this age was Oguz Han. He worked as a simple and honest T rkmen. 
The sacred symbol of the era is the ox. The ox shapes nature through its own effort. The ox 
causes Mother 


pfature to yield crops. The ox moves the world and society. 

The route led by Oguz Han is one of justice, lawfulness and propriety, and its features are 
enthusiasm, courage, forbearance and endurance. 

Only those who persist will reach their objectives. 

Oguz Han is also symbolized by the bull. It represents the skill, cleverness, maturity and 
strength of the T rkmen. 

If Oguz Han leads us to unity, oneness and integrity, then such qualities as resistance to 
problems, having willpower, strength and ability to remain hardworking are essential. 

Oguz Han said: 

I "The living need mobility" And the dead tranquillity." 

■This idiom shows how hard-working were the T rkmens who were the contemporaries of 
Oguz Han. 

The second age of the T rkmen spirit begins around AD 
650. This was an era when the T rkmens spread throughout 
the world. 

This age caused the spiritual strength displayed in diffi- 
cult conditions by T rkmens during migrations, and campaigns. The T rkmens were 
inspired by Oguz Han's instruction telling them, "not to remain immobile." 

The spiritual leader of the T rkmen in this second age was Gorkut Ata. The spirit of this era 
found expression in the tones of the kopuz. Gorkut Ata converted to Islam of his own 
volition and discovered the new comprehensive space unique to the T rkmen soul. Gorkut 
Ata established new moral principles inspired by his personal faith and philosophy of the 




afterlife. Life was divided into three, and not two parts. People believed that in the next 
world they would have to account for what they did in this world. 

T rkmens retained their moral values in this era. We know that a wolf figure was found in 
Altyndepe in addition to the ox figure. And we know that Oguz Han was led by the wolf. 
Therefore, the ox was replaced by the wolf in this second era. This is because the days of 
continuous peace and tranquillity had come to an end. Islam opened up new ways for the 
Ttirkmens. The power, bravery and speed of the wolf were essential for survival in these 
new spaces. The T rkmen spirit exceeded its former borders and spread to the Islamic 


This spirit became the wolf of the desert, travelled vast lands, and hunted prey. As such, it 
adopted qualities of extra mobility and having access to an infinite amount of space. It also 
became courageous and resistant. It took notice of the weak and the powerful. It did not 
enrage the powerful, nor did it oppress the weak. It resided in the open spaces, gave birth to 
offspring, and felt the love of its country. It did not allow strangers to trespass on its land. It 
did not have a desire to acquire lands belonging to others. Its coat and mane bore the colour 
of infinite skies and eternity. It did not grow arrogant in happy days, nor did it fall victim to 
the hopelessness of unhappy days. It inspired others to say, "The face of the wolf is sacred." 
It did not let others trap it, nor did it enter the cage of the lion or do the circus tricks of the 

The third age of the T rkmen spirit is from the 10th to the 17 Ih centuries. This period does 
not only represent the era of the T rkmen sword. This is also the period when the T rkmen 
spirit became known to the whole world. World history confirms that there were large-scale 
Ttirkmen states 


in this period. The Great Seljuk State, the Ottoman Empire, the Garagoyunlys and 
Akgo'unlys States were signs of the eminence, and political and historical success of the 
T rkmen spirit at that time. 

The legendary hero G rogly did not play his dutar in vain. The spirit of this age was 
symbolized by this particular instrument. The spirit of this age accumulated the strength that 
broke stones and destroyed mountains. This strength had impacts not only on the ground but 
in the sky as well. 

The political and military pace at which Oguz Han travelled became a cultural and historical 
3ace. The spiritual leader of this era is G rogly. 

'The Oguz T rkmens gained a permanent place in history in this period. They gained a great 
deal of political and administrative experience. There was an adage in the East, "If you want 
to found a state, call the T rkmens." There were a number of T rkmen states established in 
the Orient and the Occident, in Egypt, India and other locations. Many of the T rkmen 
Soltans had names given to eagles. In fact, every grandchild of Oguz Han had the name of 
an eagle, for example Gaya- u kar, Begdili-b hri, Dodurga-garqgay, Ow arlagyn, 
Cepni-humay, Salir-b rg t, B kd z- telgi. 

The founders of the Great Seljuk State, Dawud and Muhammed, were known by the names 
(;agn and Togrul which were eagle names. The phoenix and humay birds served as a point of 
reference for the T rkmens. 

The T rkmen spirit hovered over the summit of the rocky mountains like an eagle. It 
became morally elevated and strong. It hunted prey that flew in the sky and that fled along 

[the ground. It became very active and ebullient. It moved close to the sun, and absorbed its 
heat. It settled on an 


unreachable rock, one no voice could reach and no arrow could strike, and saw how 
transitory and deceptive the world was, observed the greedy, mortal struggles of those 
below. Thus, it acquired qualities of grandeur, comprehensiveness and depth. 

The fourth age of the T rkmen spirit is between the 17th and 20 centuries. This period was 
the weakest in terms of cleverness and skill. Action was replaced by idleness and waste, 
resoluteness was replaced by spending time doing nothing. The T rkmen started praising 
the achievements of the past and regretting his deficiencies. The historical creativity of the 
nation's spirit ceased to exist. Having discarded the historical burden, the T rkmen made 
efforts to maintain his national characteristics. Innumerable and complex historical events 
divided the nation into various groups and tribes. The sincere leaders of these divided groups 
made painstaking efforts to give unity to the nation's spirit. The T rkmens needed occasion 
and a peaceful life to pass their historical experience through the sieve of the mind, and to 
set future goals. So the T rkmen remained aloof from the foreign world and became 
engaged with himself. Magtymguly Pyragy is the spiritual leader of this period. 


hen the T rkmen changes his traditions and his way, he is defeated. For example, the city 
of Merw, which is also known as 'the Capital of the World', was a major city for the 
T rkmens of 4 thousand years ago. During the reign of Soltan Sanjar it had a population of 
more than 2 million. 


Jingiz Han devastated this beautiful city in the 13 century, but the T rkmen people re- 
established Merw again. Then, in the 16th century Tamerlame sacked Merw. And the 
|T rkmens restored Merw again. In 1787 the city was severely damaged 


by the Han of Bukhara and was re-constructed by the T rkmens. Is there any other city in 
the world that has been ruined so many times? The sublime spirit of the T rkmens protected 
the city and it will do so forever. 

IHere is yet another example. There were bloody battles between the Sayyl Han of the Yomut 
tribe and the supporters of the Akat yah of Iran. Battles took place in the villages of Astrabat 
and many people were killed. Many T rkmens killed their wives themselves during these 
battles since they did not want the enemy to capture their loved ones. Nevertheless, eight 
thousand T rkmen women and children were captured and many of them committed suicide 
to protect their chastity. Allah Almighty! May You let them reside in Heaven, and May 
You bestow upon all T rkmens of this day the beautiful T rkmen spirit inherent in them! 

Internal conflicts shaped the essence of the T rkmen spirit in this age. The lack of state 
■caused dispersal and weakening of the historical memory. Relations between the nations in 
rEastern countries diminished. Historical skills were seized by these nations. 


t)espite all difficulties, Magtymguly emerged as an outstanding figure. He inspired the 
whole T rkmen nation. Magtymguly's nephews talked like him; Zelili talked about 
patriotism; Seydi about heroism; MoUanepes and Kemine about love and peace; and Mdtdji 
about ideas on life. They all worked so that the T rkmen could be proud of his nation and 
have moral strength. 

The 20th century was one full of severe difficulties. The T rkmens who had never before 
been subjugated to the rule of a foreign country were forced to endure foreign rule. 

The death toll of T rkmens who fought in the First World 


deported between 1917 and 1930 because they were wealthy. Some 4 million T rkmens had 
to leave the country in the same period. Countless numbers of people were killed and sent 
into exile on the grounds that they were nationalists, enemies of the public and terrorists. 
Their number cannot be known precisely because people were seized secretly from villages, 
towns and cities. People were afraid to learn about what happened to those seized. The 
T rkmen nation lived in a state of moral discontent. 


We sometimes come across people today who say that they were better off in the Soviet era. 
My dear T rkmen! Don't be mistaken! Don't you ever bring the greatness of the state and 
independence down to your own level! Our values, such as independence, freedom, and 
sovereignty, are priceless. 

OT rkmen! You almost lost your native tongue during the Soviet era. You were not 
admitted to schools and you could not find employment if you did not know Russian. You 
forgot about your religion, tradition and values. You lagged economically. Our nation lived 
under terrible conditions in villages and towns. It is essential that our old tell the young 
about all this. 

T rkmenistan contributed revenue of US$10 to 18 billion from the production of oil, gas, 
cotton and chemicals to the Soviet Treasury, and less than US$1 million came back. Because 
of this, moral values ceased to exist, and immorality, lack of trust, infidelity and fraud 
became widespread. 

The 5 Ih Golden Age of the National T rkmen spirit starts on 27 October 1991. 


L In fact Allah the Almighty decreed an interesting fate for our nation. The T rkmen spirit 
Irises at the beginning of each millennium. This was the same for the beginning of the third 

millennium. Allah the Almighty granted the return of historical creative inspiration to the 

Ttirkmen. This is the age of maturity for the T rkmen spirit. 

This spirit now takes the form of a horse. The spirit of this age requires that not only the 
traditional musical instruments of deprek, kopuz, dutar, gicak are played but that 72 
instruments are played harmoniously. The horse took its place in the T rkmen flag and 
brought Golden life. Golden spirit and contentment to the T rkmen soil. The horse became 
an example and a symbol of the T rkmen nation's affluence and wealth. Golden spirit, and 
Golden life. 

Our ancestors and forefathers maintained carefully and passed down through the generations 
the ideas and thoughts that had an impact on the T rkmen spirit. Fellow T rkmens told 
what they knew to their children and grandchildren. Thus, the invaluable advice of our 
ancestors has reached this day. 


The T rkmen bears a great feeling of responsibility in his blood, soul and heart. No matter 
whether you are a director or a servant, a farmer or a holy figure, a shepherd or an ordinary 
isoldier or a commander, you should try to be the best person in the age of Independence. If^ 


you are not a good person, all that you do in this world is in vain. 

The T rkmen nation has high morals. The T rkmen hopes that his neighbours have the 
same high morals as well. The T rkmen is very pleased to do favours and to support 


lumans morally. The T rkmen may sacrifice his own benefit for the sake of others. 

If you ask for a loan from someone, he will lend you money, even if the lender is a bad 
person. But if the lender is a good person and does not have money, he says, "Come and 
relax, and have a cup of tea," and then goes out secretly and borrows from his neighbour so 
that he can lend money to the asker. Even the bad person will reply to all requests for help, 
but the good one shares his bread too. 

Only thanks to the will of Allah can we breathe. Our heart is a great and enchanting table 
where love, peace and spiritual blessings abound. When the contents of this table are shared 
they increase. If you act meanly, then they will cease to exist and fade away. 

The more it is drunk, the sweeter and more abundant the 
water in an artesian well becomes, if it remains idle, the 
water supply decreases and smells stagnant. 

Smile at your fellows when you greet them. When you 

smile, so will your fellows, and their smiles will invoke blessed feelings in your heart. 

When you meet a crowd of people, don't hurt anyone and pay compliments to everybody, 
and you will win everyone's heart. This way you will see that they smile not only on the face 
but in the heart and their hearts will blossom like roses. Both you and others will be pleased 
to see this. 

ISo you should be a good person, not for the sake of others, but for your own sake first of all. 

Man lives on the earth but his spirit is both sky and heavens. If a man is morally degraded, 
no order or decree can 

change him. 

States make efforts to educate people and make them 


aware of being a member of a state, and to protect and provide people with happiness. 

All religions, first and foremost, and then literature and art which aims at the good of 
mankind put forth an exemplary model of man. 



The main objective of our state is to educate excellent people who will be praised in world 
literatures, who have good spirits, who are generous, brave and bold, and who set great 
goals. Every member of our nation should be comfortable. But they should first be 
knowledgeable, consistent and have a progressive view of the world. 

The Indian dervishes, Muslim Sufis, and Tibetan monks make contact with Allah the 
Almighty through their words of praise. They say repeatedly that this is the most pleasurable 
thing to do in the world. We T rkmens set out into the world with our own slogan too. Our 
slogan is to lead a life which is spiritually high. There is no substitute for the pleasure of a 
high spiritual life. 

There are so many awards and titles in the world that grant man reputation and raise him to 
high ranks. Among 

4 6 such titles are "hero Tabourer", "artist of the state", esteemed artist" etc. There are 
medals awarded in return for services rendered to the nation and the country. But there are 
no ranks, medals, titles or honorary designations that relate to the exemplary man. But such 
titles are necessary. I hereby establish the medal of "Virtuousness." Let us award this medal 
to people who bear the most humane qualities, who win the hearts of the majority and who 
share their love and affection. 

The Independent and Eternally Neutral T rkmen State 


has displayed great respect for the Oguz Han traditions and remarkable philanthropic ideas, 
and, as such, enhanced these traditions. An honorary title, "Outstanding Public Figure," was 
established. We award honorary titles to professionals, to people with high ethical standards 
and to philanthropists. We encourage others to show more respect to these people. The new 
titles are appropriate for farmers, labourers, musicians, governors and shepherds, but there is 
only one condition for receiving the "Outstanding Public Figure" title: that one has good 

When people with good ethics increase in number, life itself becomes more beautiful. 

The world is moving towards perfection, love and concem for humanity and integrity. Man 
is moving towards Allah! All religions tell us that after a man dies his soul is purified and 
reaches a place before Allah. 

Man should set out on this voyage when alive. 

If we are to appear before Allah, we should be in proper condition for that appearance. 

The T rkmen should recite the following poem when going out to the world at large: 

Be grand and noble, set your sights at grand targets. 

May your soul be as noble as the standard! 

Wave goodbye to the old-age sorrows, 
May your soul be as noble as the standard! 

"The hopeless look healthy but they're not, 

The spiritually high have double the blessings 


Don't drown in indecision. 

May your soul be as noble as the standard! 

An upright man will never be down even if his work does not go well. 

He will have no grief in his high place. 

His dreams ebullient, his mind joyous. 

May your soul be as noble as the standard! 

Be high in spirit, as your people always are. 

Being a low T rkmen is a shame on you, 

Allah loves generous souls. 

May your soul be as noble as the standard! 

Once, a number of people were talking about a thief in a village. During the conversation 
D vletmdmmet Azady spoke of the good manners of the thief. As if they had agreed in 
advance, all the sufis started saying good things about the thief. Other participants in the 
conversation thought that the thief was being treated like an angel, although he was clearly 
far from being one. 

Days and months pass by, and the thief visits Azady in his home. 

"Azady, Your Highness, I am enchanted by your power, look where you've placed me," he 
cries out. "I heard of your remarks in that conversation praising me. I felt elevated and 
immediately gave up stealing. Even when I engage in any minor deed that might be 
improper, I always question myself as to what Azady His Highness would say in such a 
case. You really won my heart." Azady says in reply: 


"You have faith in your heart, so your conscience awoke." 

In another exchange some people said to Azady, "Your Highness, you knew that so-and-so 
was a thief, but you praised him. Why?" 



"If you say good things about a man, and if I do the same and so do others, then the good 
aspects of that person will come out. But if you say bad things about that man, and if I do 
the same and so do others, then it will be as if that person were coated in black pitch. If 
possible, talk about the good qualities of a man, and not the bad ones. This is what wisdom 
tells you to do." 
If a man blushes, his heart cannot be all bad. 

If you don't have a brother, the blame is not yours. If you do not have a friend, the blame is 
not Allah's. 

Behave in such a way that even strangers become close to you. 

ISpeak well of Allah's subject, so that he may correct his evils by himself. 

As a member of this nation, you should live together with and attached to your fellow 
members of the nation. 

If you improve your relations with other people, then people will have better relations with 
you. If there are a great number of good men around you, you will be able to build a 
fortress. It is your fellow T rkmen who will maintain the essential qualities of the 
T rkmen identity. No outsider will come up, arrange and order our own society. We need 
to correct our own people. 



he real brave man, the gallant! Think, contemplate. 

It is the T rkmen himself shall make this nation grand 

Visit your past and take an excursion to the future 

It is the T rkmen himself shall make this nation grand 

The T rkmen boy is a lion, and a lion's son is a lion. 
Unwillingness and avoiding duties are a shame 

For those who run for the other, it is victory which accompanies them. 

It is the T rkmen himself shall make this nation grand 

"ake lessons from the past and be an example for the future, 
May all seven climates be proud when they see the T rkmen, 

lay the route the T rkmen take be the course the world follows, 
' It is the T rkmen himself shall make this nation grand 

Try to be the equal of the learned Pyragy and Gorkut, 

Try to be the equal of the valiant Alp Arslan, (;agry beg and Togrul, 

or Oguz Han people lagging behind does not suit 

t is the T rkmen themselves who can make this nation grand. 


If we help each other on the way to perfection, Allah will help us more. 

The existence of a united people in a place is a harbinger of progress. 

May your spiritual power be great! If you are strong spiritually, Allah will love you and 
bless you more and give you longer life! 

When a miserable person approaches you and talks complainingly of the world and other 
people, his lack of enthusiasm will affect you and you will grow indifferent to your tasks. 

In contrast, if a man full of joy and happiness with high moral powers approaches you, then 
your soul will be pleased, you will apply yourself to your tasks with a new enthusiasm. 
Spiritual eminence gives you an infinite amount of courage. So you, T rkmen, should have 
that never-ending moral power. 

Life itself is a competition. If you are in competition with good people, then you become 
good too. May goodness and good people be with you. 

Allah loves men who are strong spiritually. He is proud of such men. And you too would 
love the most joyous, the most attractive, the most life-loving among your children. 


No one has ever conquered a fortress or reached his goals by being discontented. You do 
not relieve yourself of grief and sorrow by merely complaining of grief and sorrow. That 
-only helps grief and sorrow to invade your soul. m 


ay you be strong spiritually! The soul is a bird placed by Allah in the cage called the 
body. His breath is a fresh and 


noble one. Allah gave that to us in order that we could live peacefully and in joy and 

Maintain your spirituality at high levels. Let your soul flutter in the skies like your noble 


The ultimate direction of your soul is the way of Allah. 

One should not arrive before Allah with a soul in grief. Love your life, living and your 

Love your beautiful country, Mother Nature and the generous land! 

Once you do so, your soul will rise and your spirituality grow, and you will benefit from 
your duties! 

My dear citizens! 

My beloved countrymen! 

The soul is a part of Allah located in ourselves. We must maintain properly the soul granted 
to us by Allah. 

It is not difficult to drown in grief. One needn't be knowledgeable, skilful or privileged to 
suffer from grief and sorrow. And it is very easy to complain. You can continue 
complaining even though you have everything on track and you are wealthy and a man of 
rank. That's because there is no limit or border to wealth. The same also holds for ranks. 
Wouldn't the wealthy man who thinks he's wealthy but who complains that his wealth is not 
as great as that of Karun drown in misery? Certainly he would! 

There was a sufi of T rkmen origin called Bayezit-i Bestami. He left us a myriad of words 
of wisdom and stories. Here is one: 

Ebu Musa asks Bayezit the Sheikh: 


"O, Our Master, what do you plan to do tomorrow?" 

The Sheikh says: 

"I know nothing about tomorrow or tonight because Allah said to me: ^^^^^^^^^^^ 


'O Bayezit! There are various prayers and services rendered to my Treasury. If you wish to 
arrive before me, bring me something that is not already with me.' 

I asked then: 


'O Allah, the Merciful! The Almighty! What is there that is not with you?' 
Hah said: 


'Hopelessness and weakness, poverty and neediness, being offended and miserable are not 
with me or in my Treasury. Because these are not the things I need.' Allah is the 
Undisturbed. Allah is Great. Allah is to be praised with good words only. Allah's will is an 
obligation upon the T rkmen." 
I Bayezit is a leading T rkmen figure in Islam. His thought is: 


We are simple and mortal human beings. We are human beings sent to the world to live. 
We should live in line with high humanitarian principles and follow the way of the great 
nation called the T rkmens; we should make use of worldly benefits, keep our head high, 
make efforts and see the beauties of life according to the same principles. 

Our great thinker, Magtymguly, is undoubtedly a great figure in the East. We should look 
to Magtymguly as a proper example at every step we take. Would it be proper for us to 
follow Magtymguly at this age in exactly the way he did, 


in that he adopted the sufi way, waking at dawn and cry and pray with all the plants, trees 
and creation? We are different from those people who adopted the sufi way. 

Two types of power are granted to man for survival. A man spends all his efforts on 
worldly affairs in the first half of his life, or his youth. He establishes a family, receives 
training to provide his daily needs; renders services to people. Thus, he shows himself to 
the world at large. But when he grows older, and he thinks more about life he starts 
understanding that he was not created for this world with its limitations of time and space. 
He starts to grasp otherworldly realities. As Magtymguly says "There is a period of 
transition from one era to another." In this period, he perseveres and expresses regrets by 
saying: two poems again. 
You ploughed the earth, you did indeed. 
And you reaped benefits thereafter. 
You've reached forty years of age. 

Mature, you've become a man of wisdom. 

Mind grows to completion when one's forty 
So holds it for the mankind 
^nd the th ings done in youth seem strange to man__^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


After he passes forty and becomes mature in mind. 

Then repent for them and follow a spiritual guide. 

All T rkmen poets express similar philosophies. 


During the reign of the Seljuks when the Ttirkmens ruled, Soltan Sanjar read a poem by 

Enweri and invite him to his palace: 

I The course of the world, the wicked world. 

Caused severe pain and damage. 

All evils on earth and in the sky ask, 

"Where is Enweri's little home?" 

Immediately after reading the quatrain, the Soltan says: 

"O poet, if all evils strike your home alone, don't just complain, but think a while. And say, 
'What if it is the result of my sins?'Nothing is groundless. Even the slightest motion does 
not take place without a cause for it. There is a sign of wisdom in everything." 

Enweri listens to the Soltan and understands what he means: "Even when he is living 
rough, the soul of man resides at the top of the legendary Kaf Mountain." He realized that 
not every single one of his desires could be fulfilled, that he could not adapt to every 
condition and that he could not reside in a particular place for long. 

It would not be right to remain idle and claim that this was our fate. Everyone should strive 

to improve his future and be happy in his life. "Perseverance means success," as the saying 


Remain upright, even if you encounter a difficulty. Don't just be upset. When you suffer 

from grief and sorrow, just think that these are the salty ingredients in a sweet soup. 


t is hard to live in a world colder than ice, if you don't have waryn heart. Man's life after 
the beautiful days of childhood is not full of peace, joy and comfort only. No matter 


how wealthy, prosperous and affluent a society is, daily hardships and duties will continue 
to exist. Man should not lose his human qualities when he encounters such difficulties. One 
should not let oneself be morally disheartened or unable to solve problems. Man needs to 
have spiritual strength so that he cannot be embarrassed and overcome by difficulties. 

The Nobility of the Soul means not losing love and the desire to live. 

The Nobility of the Soul means not losing your determination and perseverance to live. 

The Nobility of the Soul means feeling the honour of being a human. 
,The Nobility of the Soul means not losing wholeheartedness and sincerity. ^^^^^^^^^ 




en are active and high in spirit during their youth. But many forget these beautiful 
feehngs when they grow older. This is because the body is strong when men are young and 
they feel more the joy of life. The body is so programmed that it gradually grows older and 
weaker. The real man is the one that remains strong throughout his entire spiritual life. 

For his eminence in spirit does not depend on ambitions, lust and sexual desires, but on the 
contrary, it depends on spiritual enthusiasm and values. A man grows all the more 
enthusiastic spiritually when he feels the same as his fellow countrymen do. The union of 
hearts is the love that does not separate you from your fellow people and country. The life 
and the heart of a man with spiritual eminence is his homeland. The concept of homeland is 
a comprehensive one and it has many connotations. One's spouse, children, brothers, 
relatives, state, friends, place of birth, colleagues, history and today are all contained in 
reference to the concept of home- 


land. Values and ideas should be personified so that a people becomes united and 
integrated. The process of personification is a sophisticated one. The personification speaks 
of the perfect degree of man and the national identity. When man reaches the right level of 
maturity in his ideas and thoughts on soul and spirituality, he reaches His Creator, Allah, 
the idea of His Oneness and Uniqueness. By the same token, the individual both 
generalizes and personifies the values that are important to him and refers to them through 
the concept of homeland. The homeland is one and unique. Unique means unequalled and 

Once he understands how sacred is the homeland, through his mental perception and 
feelings, the T rkmen can never yield to spiritual debasement. Since for him the concept 
of homeland turns into a proof when he speaks, into love in his heart, an unbreakable belief 
in ethics, perseverance in working, and into benefits in motion. 

Spiritual debasement is a result of loneliness. If a man has faith in his heart, he will never 
feel inferior to others even though he earns less and lives in a simpler house. Regression in 
material things does not necessarily mean spiritual debasement. Material deficiencies might 
harm one's body. But, only spiritual poverty, slackness of spiritual strength and faith can do 
harm to the soul. Therefore, maintain a pure heart, and never, ever neglect your spirituality, 
your spiritual well-being. 

Man is a spiritual being. The most important problems and the most severe difficulties have 
to do with the soul. Even though he has material needs, man can survive if he adapts to the 
world at large in a modest way. But in the cases of spiritual hunger, needs of the soul, or 
ethical weakness, it is harder for man to maintain his human qualities. Man can be 
subjugated only when spiritually debased. Therefore high- 


ness in spirit is essential for everyone who carries the name T rkmen. It is as essential as 
the air we breathe, or the food we eat. Just as air is essential to the lungs and bread to the 
stomach, so too is spiritual highness essential to the heart and soul for the T rkmens and 
all others. 

The T rkmen people have held various viewpoints in their rich and complex lives. These 
are the springs that feed the T rkmen soul. So here is my real advice: always remain 
strong and sublime spiritually! 


wish to draw your attention specifically to three sayings by Gorkut Ata: 

The Soltan's right is the same as Allah's right. 

The father's right is the same as Allah's right. 

'The mother's right is the same as Allah's right. 

The word haq, right, is synonymous with the word justice, huquk. They are indeed the 
same thing. 

Thus, the T rkmen grants almost the same rights as Allah's to only three people in society: 
the ruler, the father and the mothel The ruler's rights imply each and every citizen's 
responsibilities before the law and the ruler. The rights of the father and mother also imply 
one's responsibilities to one's parents. 

If you are indebted to someone, it means you are to give something to them. 

The indebtedness of children originates from the patronage provided for them by their 
parents. The children are dependent on their parents in various respects. 




The children should be indebted to their parents because they were bom. 

The children are indebted to their parents because they raised them to be benevolent 

The children should be indebted to their parents because they helped them become 
members of society. 

Allah Almighty created man as follows: 

^Uah created t he chil d so that he is d ependent on his parents until he reaches maturity. Man 


should thank Allah because he is bom. And he should remain indebted to his parents and 
pray for them as they provided for him with proper care and upbringing. 

But the youth mistakenly think that they grew up on their own. They can only understand 
the sufferings of their parents in raising them when they get married and have children. 
Therefore our ancestors said the following: 

"You will understand the value of those who helped you subsist only when you help others 

"You will understand the value of those who protect you only when you protect others." 

Helping others subsist and protecting them does not merely mean providing them with 
material needs. This is patronage and maintenance. 

Every age has its peculiar properties. The child has different thoughts of his father at 

different ages: 

5 years old: "My father knows everything." 

10 years old: "My father knows quite a lot." 

15 years old: "I know as much as my father does." 



30 years old: "Nevertheless, my father knows something." 

40 years old: "It would be fine if I consulted my father." 50 years old: "My father knows 

60 years old: "If only my father were alive and I could consult him about this and that. I 
should have appreciated him properly when he was alive." 


One understands the value of one's parents when one grows older. We start thinking about 
the value of things only after we lose them. But T rkmen girls and boys should recognize 
the value of their parents beforehand. Fortunate is the child that pays respect to his parents. 
Being bom itself is a blessing. Transforming the Allah-given blessing of life into real 
happiness depends only on man's ability to do so. Life is a blessing bestowed upon us by 
Allah. Leading a meaningful life is not only a right but also a duty on us. Allah granted me 
the chance to lead a life in this world. But Allah deprived me of matemal affection and 
paternal patronage. Therefore I knew of the value of parents even before I had children. I 
felt lacking and low in myself compared to my friends when their fathers expressed 
affection to them. I used to feel bad, in a way inferior, when their fathers would smile at 

Yet Allah provided me with the cure for my suffering. Although I was an orphan, I was 
given by Allah the spiritual power to overcome inferiority, neediness and loneliness. Allah 
Himself provided me with parental affection and patronage. Allah Almighty also gave me 
the chance to con- 

vey my experience full of pain to others and to tell them what the homeland meant. 

My beloved child! 

Allah is followed by your father in terms of your patronage. 

Life is led in three castles. One castle lasts for a lifetime, and the other two follow the 
footsteps of time. 

The lifelong castle is your homeland. You are in it from your birth till your last day in the 


The second castle is the home you are bom and raised in. You are raised with parental 

affection in this castle. This is a sacred place for you because this place includes your 

mother and father who provide for you and protect you from evils. You start speaking in 

this castle. You become mature in this castle. This castle provides you with the necessary 

means to survive in the third castle. 




The third castle is the home you estabhsh with your beloved one. This is the life castle that 
will blossom like a rose and gain meaning. You should always remain indebted to your 
parents when you are in this castle, and you should express your indebtedness. You should 
behave consistently and show that your parents raised a good child. 

Your dignity, reputation, honour, your respect toward them and the services you render to 
them add to their lives. The daily greeting you express and assistance you provide are signs 
that express your indebtedness. In this way you obtain the approval of your parents and 
behave in a way that shows their affection for you was not in vain. 


Your mother gives shape to your intrinsic qualities, and your father protects you from 

external evils. 


When a child is scared, he cries out "mother" for help. When he grows up, he seeks the 
support of his father. 

"The father is an example of wisdom, logic, patriotism, chastity and justice in the T rkmen 
tradition. The father is not thought to be the one who raises the child because he never says 
"Be like this, do this and that." He sets an example for his child through his actions, his 
deeds, clothing and characteristics as to how one should be and live. A father can talk to his 
child through his eves. 

Once a father and his son were unjustly convicted of theft. They were brought before court 
and the Soltan. The judge decreed 40 lashes for the alleged criminals. First forty lashes are 
administered to the father. He suffers, his whole back becomes a pool of blood, but he does 
not cry out a sin- 
gle word that expresses pain. 

Then they start to lash the son. Each time they hit the son, the father cries out, "Oh my son, 

no." The Soltan calls 

the old father to him: 

"You were flogged with forty lashes but you did not utter a single word of pain. Why do 

you cry now?" 

"O Your Majesty, the lashes were touching my flesh only when they beat me, but when 
they beat my son, I felt the 

pain deep in my inside." 

The Soltan was pleased with the answer and ordered that the two be released, saying that 

such a father could not 

be accused of theft. 
yd sons of the Golden A ge, the Awaited generationJ_ 


ou have matured and become older. When you become older still, don't think that your 
fathers are a burden upon 



you. For your fathers carried you on their shoulders carefully as a burden on them, and they 
aised you. 


Listen to the advice of Gorkut Ata: "Gain your reputation while your father is alive, and get 
ahead while you have your horse." 

Your father is a base for you in society. People measure your value first by looking at your 
father. Don't let your father be ashamed among others because of you. 

You are the heir of your father. It is not merely wealth that you inherit. Your father's 
reputation or dishonour is left to you, too. Your father's heritage is divided equally among 
his children, but his authority transfers to you and your brothers undivided. 

May you never forget who your father is. Let others say of you, "Better than his father," 
and be proud if they say so. Be ashamed if they say of you, "He is not up to his father." 

Don't you ever forget that you were created out of one drop. 

If it weren't for your father, you wouldn't exist. You would not have been bom if not for 
Ihim. It is your father's existence that made your existence in the world of beings possible. 
Your father is your previous self. 

Disregarding your father means disregarding yourself. Being disrespectful to your father is 
being disrespectful to yourself. The more favours you do your father, the more you do the 
same for yourself. 

Ispend much time thinking about the relations between fathers and their sons. A T rkmen 
saying goes: "If your father is a dog, then feed yourself at a trough." 


Once in the old times, a saint spoke ill of a certain man, saying: 

"May you bark as a dog does." The very moment the saint uttered this, the man became a 
dog, by Allah's will. That man's son fed his father at his doorway. After people went to bed, 
he washed the dog, brushed it and ate at the trough with his dog-father. This lasted seven 
years. When the saint saw how honest and sincere the son was, he prayed to Allah for the 
man to become a human being again and afterwards he said to the man: 

i^ndeed you should have lived in this world as a dog because of your deeds, but I see that j 

you've raised a perfect son. It is for that Allah elevated you to your human status again." 

Men are parts in a chain. Each individual is a part of the chain. You are a part only because 
your father was a part. Never, ever seek benefits from your father in return for what you did 
■ for him, and if he does that, then be patient. 

Life means existence, and death is absence. Absence is one, existence is of three stages. 
You yourself are the present existence, your child is tomorrow's existence and your father 
is yesterday's existence. Death comes all of a sudden. If you are not one of three, you 
cannot win victory over death. 

The fear of death settled on earth at the same time as the human being. That fear is 
removed when your first child is bom because your child is a continuation of you. 

Fathers don't die. They live in the souls of their children. I noticed a certain feeling after my 
youth. I think all mature people have that feeling. I sometimes feel that I am not myself, 
and I am my father instead. It is as if I touch through his hands and not mine. It is as if 1 
move forward on his feet 




and not mine. It is as if I speak through his tongue and not mine. This sounds strange and 
interesting at first sight. It is indeed not the kind of feeling that you could talk about to 
someone unless you had felt it. At those times, I feel that my father's movements, 
characteristics and behaviours are revivmg in me. I understand that my father is reviving 
in me. 

This is the kind of feeling that shows one is mature. Try to have this kind of feeling. By 
doing so, you will extend the life of your father and show respect toward him. Respect for 
the father is respect for the homeland. 


My dear T rkmen Nation! 

The mother is a sacred being. Then talk of the mother is sacred too. 

One can understand the value of sacred things only after one has lost them. The values of 
certain things can only be perceived after they are lost. A man's real nature can be 
understood by looking at his respect toward his mother. A T rkmen saying expresses how 
beautiful a mother is to her child: 

"Fatherless, I am orphan; motherless, I am captive." 


his saying clearly speaks to one with T rkmen feelings and consciousness of how sacred 
the mother is. 

IT rkmen people compare the mother to the father to express the fact that the privileged 
' status of the sacred mother cannot be compensated for by anything. 

iFor the T rkmen has a national understanding of the concept of "sacredness." 


Afather s endless efforts, and a mother's heart feeds the child. 

The heart is where feelings reside; and humanity is home to various comparisons. 

The T rkmen combines the words mother and heart, and tells us that sacredness has 

nothing to do with material benefits or values. 

Achild is a part of his father's body, but he is a part of his mother's heart. 

The word orphan has connotations of material insufficiency or having material needs. But 
the word captive refers to spiritual lack, insufficiency of spiritual patronage, and lack of 
spiritual ground. Being a captive means falling away from one's homeland and suffering 
from all kinds of difficulties. The captive suffers not from the lack of material support 
from his friends, but from the lack of spiritual aid and from their insensitivity. 

The world itself seems ruthless and cruet to the captive. 
The orphan is better off than the captive. 

I Fate decreed two pains for me. I was both an orphan and a captive. This double suffering 
is recognized only by those who have faced it. 

lean say that the severest pain is the need for matemal love. The pain felt by the heart is 
sharper than bodily suffering. Bodily pain abates, but the pain felt by the heart goes on, 
bleeds all the time and remains with one, as long as one's heart remains beating. 

I If one's father passes away, then one is in need of material things. 
■If one's mother passes away, then one suffers 
from lack of love. 

Amother's love and compassion for her child is the source that binds the child and the 
mother, and that is home to invisible warm feelings between the two. This warmth 
transforms the mother and her child into a world that is composed only of the two. 

One's blood comes from one's father, whereas one's body is from one's mother. 

The mother is the first place where one resides. The first homeland where one lives for 
ynin e months, becomes a human being and enters the world i s the womb of one' s mothe r. 


he mother's lap is the second homeland where the child lives, is taught to speak, has his 
mind and feelings developed from infancy toward adolescence. Compassion originates 
from the warmth of the mother's lap. 


The caring hands of the mother are a homeland that raises the child from infancy to 
adolescence, provides it with desirable qualities and brings it to perfection. People who 
were cared for by their mothers grow up as individuals who are ready to love the 
homeland which is our ultimate place to reside. 

Compassion results from the mother's womb, lap and hands. Sacredness finds a safe place 
in the human body and becomes the essential factor that improves him. Therefore it is the 
mother who renders the individual sacred. 

Allah creates; He is the Creator. The mother is the reproducer, the deliverer. 

Human beings other than Adam and Eve gain life in their mother's wombs and are 
prepared for worldly life there. 


The creation of Eve shows that Allah reserved creation for Himself, but shared the power 
to reproduce humans with mothers. 

Thereafter, Allah did not create another human being without a mother, except in one 
instance. This instance was the creation of Jesus Christ. Magtymguly says the following 
on Allah's creation of Jesus Christ: 

"He is the one that came into being without a father." 

Allah Almighty is definitely powerful. He could have created Jesus Christ without a 
mother too. But that's not how He did it. I think this a sign of the special value placed 
upon the mother by the Creator. It is an obligation upon every T rkmen to praise and love 
the mother, who is given a special value by Allah, the Creator of you and me and all. Who 
creates everything out of nothing by His Will and Command, Who is the Creator of the 
whole universe. 

If any word at all has the quality of a miracle, if any word at all has superior qualities 
[ about it, that word is mother. Life has its origins in the mother. 

Once upon a time the great Seljuk poet Enweri approached a saint with great enthusiasm. 
The saint said: 

"Allah has given me a special privilege; ask of me any wish you desire and it will come 

"I wish to see my mother who is the ultimate direction I turn to, and my father's face for 
one last time. Let them see that their child lives in the world in a benevolent way, causing 
no harm. Let them be in peace in the other world knowing this," asked Enweri of the saint. 


IBy Allah's will, the saint let Enweri see the faces of his mother and father. They met and 
were happy. 


The saint said: 

"You could have been given wealth or a Sultanate if you had wished. But yours was the 
most sacred of all desires. Go and you will be rewarded with the Sultanate of hearts!" 

Under Soltan Sanjar's patronage, Enweri the Poet became the most famous poet of all 
Seljuk T rkmens, Arabs and Persians. He is deemed to be one of the three poets who 
followed the way of the Prophet. 



here is a myriad of anecdotes and stories about mothers. Man can understand that the 
most miraculous thing in the world is the mother, although he does not necessarily 
understand everything. He elevates the status of the mother with wise sayings. 

Once there was a couple in love. The girl wished to learn how much her beloved loved 

"Tear apart your mother's chest and bring her heart to me, if you really love me," she said. 

The girl's beloved was mad about the girl and he tore apart his mother's chest and took the 
bloody heart, which was still beating, in his hands. He ran to the girl's house. A stone on 
the way tripped him and he fell down. At that moment his mother's heart in his hands 
gained the power to speak and said: 

"O my dear, you haven't hurt yourself, have you?" 

This is a mother. No matter what happens, she feels and lives for her child with such love, 
[Compassion, attachment and dedication that it can never ever be given up. After a long and 
'painful delivery, between life and death, every mother gives birth to her child in difficulty. 

Once, a mother was dying during delivery. The physi- 


cians resuscitated the baby and the baby uttered a very loud cry. By Allah's will, the 
mother who had just died, revived at the cry of the baby. 

yidon't believe eve rything I am told. I am not v ery pious eithe r. But I do feel like bel ieving _ 

very much in the story told above. 
LDoctors who work in the maternity ward say: 

"On some occasions, it is really hard to save the lives of some mothers. Realizing the 
dangers, those mothers always say, 'Save my baby. Leave me but deal with my child and 
save it,' and so give life to their babies." 

The following story is attributed to a poet who lived in historic times: 
The poet's mother wishes to eat apples when she is with child. There are dark red apples 
hanging in the trees in the gardens that belong to their neighbours. She cannot ask for 
apples from the neighbours since she is at odds with them. She cannot buy apples because 
she does not have the money. She goes back and forth to the gardens wishing for some 
apples and thinks she should not take them since the apples do not belong to her, so it 
would be wrong to take those apples. Then the baby is bom and grows to be the famous 
poet. The poet says: 

"Our neighbour's garden is a fertile land for apples. I sometimes wish to fulfil my mother's 
wish and eat those apples. But I don't, because I do not want to hurt my mother's soul. 
Therefore I control myself." 

There is no limit to the respect to be displayed toward parents. A couple of years ago, a 
man was talking to a famous religious figure: 

"We were raised under Soviet policies. I wish to believe in Allah, but I can't. I am so old 
now but I just can't live without a faith." 

The religious figure said in reply: "If you do not believe in Allah, go bow to your parents' 
graves." Faith has its origins in belief in the parents. Magtymguly also expressed 
something in the same vein, "Forgive my sins, for the sake of my parents." Maintain 
respect for your parents. Allah will forgive you for the sake of your parents, if not for your 
own sakes. 

The T rkmen nation does not know much about the great poet Enweri. I sometimes think: 


"Enweri was so happy that he saw the faces of his mother and father once again, and I 
would also give all that I have to be able to see the faces of my parents." 

The women who knew my mother say, 'How dear and affectionate a woman your mother 
was!" Those who knew my father say, "Saparrnyrat, your father was a bold and fearless 
man. He would help people, and if he couldn't help others himself, he would try to find 
others who could. He had such light in his face, he spoke courteous and beautiful words, 
and he was a man to be heard with joy." 

Thus I saw that what my parents had left for me was more valuable than what the Soltans 

left to their children. I raised myself to be the proper son that my parents would want me 
to be. 

I Stay away from people who hurt their parents. Such people cannot be human. Do not 
■believe in people who do not take care of their parents. Such people will not be of any use 
' to the public and their homeland. 

Mt is not proper to pay the slightest respect to a person 




who does not take care of his parents. Even Allah's angels would not pay any respect to 
the person who does not take care of his parents. 


We say the mother is the soil, the father is the homeland. 

The mother teaches us to love the soil, and the father teaches us to love the homeland 
through their painstaking efforts and their lives. 

No matter if her child is deaf, disobedient or stupid, a mother will always understand what 
her child says. 

The T rkmens say, "Only the deaf person's mother understands what the deaf person 

"My son, when you were a baby, all you could do was to cry. You could not speak. You 
could not say a word. I would understand what you meant, though. You are now grown 
up, but I simply cannot understand you," complained a mother of her ungrateful son. 

An ungrateful person who breaks the heart of his mother cannot achieve anything all 
through his life. 

One who does harm to his mother could do harm to other people and the homeland, too! 

Don't believe it, if they say of someone that he does not take care of his mother, but there 
are others he takes care of. 

Ibelieve the mother carries with her powers and miracles. This I have witnessed many 
times in my life. If I am going to be happy or upset tomorrow, I see my mother in my 

My dear daughters and sons! 

■ Don't think that you were not taken care of. Your mother's careful eyes over you watch out 
r for you day and night. Wherever you are, your mother's heart is with you. 


The T rkmen have a beautiful saying: "Only my mother's tears are real, others' are fake." 
The mother always takes care of her children. Respect mothers! Love mothers! We 
wouldn't be paying them the respect they deserve, even if we carried them on top of our 
very heads. People who are respectful of their parents are happy and productive in their 
lives. Don't believe in the greatness and goodness of those who are disrespectful of their 
parents. A man's real essence can be understood in the respect he displays toward his 


My dear citizens! 

My fellow countrymen! 

The child is the product of the love, sincerity and will of the mother and the father. For 
parents, even a single hair of their children is worth the whole world. Because T rkmen 
people are hardworking and determined, sons are given a special value. When a son is 
bom, the parents say, "We are wealthier, stately, now," and his relatives say, "We have 
become more fist (powerful) in the family now." When one asks the number of members 
in a family, they don't tell you the number of mouths in the family, but they tell you the 
number of heads. The T rkmen's love for his daughter requires special mentioning. That 
is because daughters are more vulnerable and they will become parts of other families in 
the future. A daughter should be very happy in her parent's home. 

The love found in a child's heart has its origins in the child's mother. 

The dignity, bravery, foresight, and fearlessness of the child stem from the father. 


■The father is like a high mountain with a grandeur of body and a snowy summit as high as 
' the clouds in the sky. 

The mother's heart is an ocean full of love and peace. 

Fwhen our father, the Prophet Adam, had a son and a daughter, he asked Angel Gabriel: 

"I haven't felt the mercy of a mother, nor do I know of paternal love. Then why was I 
granted this fate?" 

I "Allah is your father and mother. Wouldn't He replace both?" Gabriel rephed. 

It is an obligation upon the child to please his parents. When are parents happy with what 
their children do? 

yWhen a ch ild surpasses his father in work, respect, wealth and affluenc e, then his parents 

will be as pleased as their child makes them. 

The child is the most precious belonging of the father. 
The child is a continuation of the parents. 

Achild can leave his parents upon obtaining proper consent and approval from them, as 
required by a proper upbringing. And on the part of the child to gain consent is a debt to 
is or her parents. 


IT rkmen people have various sayings, principles and ethical rules regarding children's 
r responsibilities to their parents. These are the accumulation of thousands of years of 

experience. The Ttirkmen family lies at the root of these. Society is in fact based on the 
I family. So the ultimate aim is the reinforcement and strengthening of society. Therefore 
I personal values, familial values and social values are not separate entities in the 
r T rkmens but they stand as inseparable parts of a whole. It is this harmony that helped the 



nation survive as a nation for thousands of years. It was only under the Soviet regime that 
I the relations between mothers and daughters, fathers and sons, and our national values 
I were grievously harmed. The aim was to destroy the T rkmen family. They understood 

that this was the most appropriate method to decimate the Ttirkmen nation, and this policy 

was implemented on purpose. 

In our contemporary age, the Golden Age of the T rkmen, our main objective is the 
revival of familial relations and revitalization of family values. In this framework, the 
responsibilities of the child to his parents have a special role. 

The well-behaved child does not grow on his own. The child needs guidance. An unguided 
child is like an untrained horse. 


Equipping the child with social values, and rendering him beneficial to society at large as 
a skilled individual are the main aims of this guidance. 


Man is bom to live as part of a society in this world. Without a society, it is impossible for 
a man to live. However, there are certain rules and principles to be honoured when living 
n a society. There are certain responsibilities that are to be fulfilled. 

The first responsibility of the child is the fulfilment of the duties that are incumbent upon 
him regarding his parents. 

The main ethics to be pursued when fulfilling this responsibility are as follows: 

The- child should definitely know that his parents always want the good of their child, and 
ythey only w ish happiness and peace for their chil d. , 

rThe parents'hearts reside in their child. 


But the child needs beautiful examples, not insincere 

■The best guidance is being a proper example. That is possible through being consistent in 
■word and deed. Only under these conditions can a child be expected to grow up as a 
rproper person. 

The provision of subsistence is a duty, finding means to live on is a task; but providing 
proper guidance is the task that precedes both of these tasks. 

If the father does not regret that he made certain mistakes, it is a fact that the child will 
repeat these mistakes. Therefore if you love your child, stay away from improper and 
unlawful deeds and show regret for what you have done improperly! 

If the child does not observe ethical conduct, then he cannot be expected to display such 
conduct. The best way to conduct oneself ethically is by imposing certain restrictions upon 
oneself. It would cause social disrespect against one if one did whatever one wanted and 
tried to fulfil every improper desire, ambition and sexual desire. That would also result in 
others' being ignorant of your words. That would also make one ashamed. The disrespect 
toward a person is a great shame for that person's child. 

The best inheritance is ethics. A child who knows how to behave well is one who has 
learned how to do so from his fathel 

Your child is a part of you. You are responsible for that part of yours, if it is harmed, then 

that means your whole body will be harmed. 

Dear mothers and fathers, I ask of you to do the following: 

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Beloved Leader Saparniyral TUrkTiienbaijy the (iieat 





Show the difference between the proper and improper; permissible, lawful, and forbidden, 



Show the difference between the truth and falsehood; 
Show the difference between the good and the bad; 

Show the difference between honourable labour and work driven by greed; 

Show the difference between knowledge and ignorance; 

Show the difference between benevolence and malevolence; good and evil; 

Don't do this through words. If you have understood the difference for yourself, in this 
case you will have provided proper guidance for your children. Benevolence means 
sacrificing your own interests, and malevolence is the disregarding of others' interests. The 
damage caused by malevolence and the benefit that benevolence generates are not 
immediately obvious. 

The malevolent man blames time and society for his faults, without ever looking at 
himself. Teach your child to improve himself, he will do the rest himself. 

Don't do favours for the sake of gaining title or reputation. 

Faith in Allah is the greatest guarantee that you will serve the public. 
^Avoiding difficult tasks, turning to improper and forbidden deeds because they are easier 
'is a betrayal of your child. A person seeking worldly benefits by doing favours to others 

could easily engage in improper and unlawful deeds too. 

Protect your child so that he doesn't become like that! 


Possession of wealth does not mean living apart from the ordinary people, but rather it is a 

means to unite with them. 

If you take on a good deed, have confidence in Allah, in your people and country. 

If your child is malevolent, then blame yourself. 

Don't engage in affairs unacceptable to the public. As long as you desist from such things, 
the public and society will readily accept you. 


Improper, unlawful and forbidden mean acting contrary to the good of society 
Proper, permissible and lawful mean acting toward the good of society. 
My dear fellow T rkmens! 
Engaging in lies, gossip and slander lie at the source of all evils. For these are means that 

set a veil over sins and improper deeds. 

If proper deeds are replaced by improper ones in a society, then it means that society does 
not value moral guidance. Moral guidance means protecting the society and bringing about 
social unity. 

Teach your child how to be pure. 

Suspicion of others is a burden on the heart. Being suspicious of one's fellow, of society 
and the state is in fact the first step toward committing a sin. 

Improper, forbidden and unlawful deeds say, "We are the proper and lawful thing to do." 
For that is the only way they can exist. Man must use the pen-nissible and lawful as a 


Proper deeds do not say, "We are the proper thing to 
do," for that would be meaningless. 

Purity, integrity and humanity are the protectors of the proper, permissible and lawful. It is 
when he has bodily cleanness combined with internal purity that the human being becomes 
a proper man. If one has bodily cleanness but lacks internal purity, then that is the most 
despicable condition. 

The child is indebted to his parents to an enormous extent. The child cannot repay the 
value of even one single day's effort spent by his parents even if he serves them for a 
whole lifetime. 

[Parents are obliged to their children in the following ways and they should: 

give the child a proper name; guide and bring up the child properly; provide training for 
the child; provide the child with a profession; help the child maffy; 
help the child establish his or her own home and family; 

make the child available for service to the public, country and his or her fellows. 

Although not great in number, these obligations are very important. These all add up to 
mean that the parents have to raise their child as a proper man or woman and make him or 
her available for service to the nation. 

Parents should think about these even before their child is bom because one can only do 
useless things without planning. Good deeds require planning in advance. Therefore, if 



you do something wrong, you will regret it; and if you do a good deed, you will receive 
I blessings. 


Teach your child how to make efficient use of time. 

The Devil keeps a close eye over your time and faith, both of which are your precious 
belongings. Time is your life in this world, and faith is your life in the other world. 
Wasting time means losing one's life or oneself. 

Teach your child how to save his time and life. 

All that you can save of time will belong to you. 

Time is a mace. Hit or be hit! 

Be clever, skilful and hard-working! Laziness means 'being profligate and leaving oneself 
^to be blown about by the winds of fate. 

e hard-working and you will generate returns in cash; be lazy and you will get into debt. 

Out of mercy for yourself, work. 

Joblessness, lack of wisdom and laziness will damage you more than your enemies ever 
could. Time is a wild predator, but if you train it, you may use it to your benefit. 

Do not be subject to time; let it be your subject. 

Live so that you regret nothing when you die. 

Living does not only mean passing time. It means reaching eternity after passing through 



each the foregoing to your child. 
If you do so, the child will be proud of his parents and fulfil his responsibilities sincerely. 


The child is indebted in the following ways in the 
. T rkmen tradition: 

Do whatever lawful thing your parents tell you to do. Don't engage in tasks unapproved 

by them. Don't lead a way of life unacceptable to your parents. Maintain a smiling face 

toward them. 

Be their lifelong companion. 

Be with them when they are in need. Do what they tell you to do on time. 

Don't seek benefits for what you've done for them; don't remind them of what you did and 
do for them reproachfully otherwise you will harm them. 

Keep your voice low when speaking to them or in their presence. 

Always help them if they have bodily pain or illness. 

Don't offend them, nor be offended by them. 

Address them with the polite form of "you." 
Don't utter bad words to them. 



on't speak to them looking at them directly in the face and eyes. 

Pay compliments and be courteous to them. 

Avoid false or inappropriate words or behaviour when in their presence. 

Always remember that they are your closest friends. 
Share their happiness and grief. 


Don't wam them offensively if they boast or speak highly of themselves. 

If they cause problems because they are old and unable, be patient. 

Share their problems. 

Try not to cause or give them hann. 

iDon't be suspicious of them. 

Wish them a long life when they are alive. 

I Provide them with clothing better than yours. 

Provide them with food better than yours. 

Serve them in a serious and sincere way. 

Help them reach their desires and make them happy. 
^Provide them with the ir need s. ^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Do not be mean toward them. 
Adopt their friends as yours. 

Remember them after they die, do favours and charities on their behalf, recite from the 

IQur'an and have its verses recited for their benefit. For the T rkmen holds that it is the 

prayers of the children that reach the souls of the deceased parents first. After their 

demise, one means of doing good on their behalf in this world is their children's righteous 


My dear child! 

Continue serving your parents even after they pass away. The services you render to the 
homeland will be of use after death, as well. Don't forget about your homeland. The 
homeland can continue to exist only because it is always remembered. 


It is a very sacred duty upon you to love and protect the father's and the mother's 
homeland and your independence in the way you would protect your most precious 

Our fathers have spilled lots of blood on the way to independence. Oguz Han, Gorkut 
Ata, Alp Arslan ... the heroes in the G kdepe Castle., all made the T rkmen known to 
the whole world. You are their descendants. Only patriotism and bravery will suit you. Be 
loyal to the country whose resources you make use of, and to your mother who feeds you 
with her milk. For the resources granted by the homeland to you and your mother's milk 
I are sacred. Allah Almighty ordered that we should not waste his treasures. It is an 
obligation upon you to protect these sources of wealth because generations to come after 
you have a share in them. You will always be fortunate if you share their grief and 
happiness, and act in harmony with your fellow countrymen. Your fellows are valuable to 
you. Look for guidance from your homeland. Follow the path of justice. For those who 
follow the path of justice will never be misled. This way is a source of light in the 
darkness. Be guided by the moral conduct we inherited from our forefathers. Be obedient 
to them and you will become the most caring person in the world. 

My dear son, my beloved daughter! Read! Learn! Produce! It is essential that you be 
knowledgeable and skilful so that the homeland can survive powerfully and 
independently, and so that our people remain prosperous and heroic as ever. 



My dear T rkmen people ! 

The rose blossoms from within, and may you blossom as a rose would. This way you will 
win the hearts of other people. Speak of good things, do good and favours to all, be 
courteous and complimentary to them. The smile is a sign of love. Smiling faces bear a 
sacred light in them. Allah says, "Those smiling high-spirited people are closer to Me, I 
will grant them twice as much as I will grant to others." The smile is the reflection of the 
human soul. People who smile are generous because they are successful in the jobs they 
do. Through a smile, man pleases not only himself but those with whom he has contact. 
People who smile become more beautiful. 

"There will never be any wrinkles on a smiling face," as the saying goes. This means 
[people who smile do not easily become olc. 

loften remember my mother. Her smile still appears before my very eyes although she 
passed away more than fifty years ago. The smile is visible to me in the dark of the night, 
even if I have my eyes shut. 


y mother wove rugs all day. 

The sound of the loom echoed in our home like the clatter of hoofs. I woke up early, as 
usual, and I saw that my mother was awake working. She kept on working after putting 
us to bed. I was rather worried, for my mother did not take a rest as other mothers did. 
She would not go out either. It was only after she passed away that I could understand 
that she worked day and night to provide a living for us. She 


relieved herself of her pains through working. I remember saying to her: 

"My dear mother, please have some rest. Look, your hands seem tired." Then she would 
take me on her lap and would caress me as if she was hugging and caring for a baby. She 
would look me in the face, watch me with her dark eyes and smile at me. That smile of 
hers is still in my heart, mind and world. I always remember the smiles of my mother. 
How interesting! Neither years nor winds have been able remove that smile from my 
memory. When I encounter a difficulty, I remember my mother's smile. That smile 
spreads throughout my soul and takes away the pain I have. It is as if a hand stretches out 
and takes the pain away. Like the hero in the tale, I get rid of all my pains then. With the 
power of the smile, I turn into a little child instead of the old man I am, just like the old 
man in the tale; my soul flies like a bird in the sky; and I even feel as if I understand the 
language of all the birds, flowers and other creatures. The sacred light in my mother's 
eyes brightens my heart. Then my life becomes sweeter than my mother's smile. That 
smile gives me extraordinary powers. 

That smile I inherited from my mother is my treasure, my wealth. I can't find anything 
-worth that smile even if I pay thousands in gold for it. I can't find it anywhere even if I ^ 


strive like a treasure hunter. 

in fact, people can all have access to these smiles. Your mother who is asValuable as the 
holy Ka'bah, and your father who is as precious as the Qibla to you have left lots of such 
smiles to you. It is those smiles that make us live. But it is probable that we may not have 
understood and appreciated fully the real value of such smiles. 


Asmile can make a friend for you out of an enemy. When death stares you in the face, 
smile at it and it may leave you untouched, I believe. 

Spring is the smile of the earth. Smile at each other. Do it honestly when you meet. Greet 
one another through smiles. Talk to each other with smiles. 

My dear T rkmens, you are much closer to one another than relatives are. You are the 
T rkmen nation that lives around the same hope, on the same ground and under the same 

It is a blessing from Allah that He taught us to smile. 

Asmile can open up your soul, gives you pleasure and relaxes you. 

It is that smile which elevates your heart just like an unexpected sunny day in winter. 

lit is that smile which removes grief and hatred from your heart just like the ocean wind 
that disperses fog. 

Your smile can also serve as a remedy for your problems when you talk to others. That 
very smile is to the benefit of yourself, the friends you talk to, and your homeland. If your 
smile is an essential quality of our state, then isn't our country a beautiful and fine place? 

The smile is a sign of peace and love. A person who can smile can love too. Your smiles 
I become love and spread through the world. 

iLove all beings. Through love you can understand the meaning and the expressive 

r language of plants and animals and have some kind of wisdom and saintly perceptions. 


rLove your vast lands and plains where Hydyr I strolls... 
Love your mountains and seas where Kowus and Kyyas travel. 


Go see for yourself where G rogly and Togrul Beg fought, and love the mountains 
yMagtym guly 1^^^H ^ 

rLove the human, the most miraculous being in the world! Love the nature that is 

f endlessly at your service. Love the trees that call out to you with their flowers, leaves, 

branches and fruits. 

Aman can be a saint through climbing the ladder of love. 


Aman can incorporate himself into nature and become as pure and fine as nature. From 
such a stance and understanding, Allah the Most Exalted is not far away. 

If the oceans and seas did not rise and fall in the wind, then their waters would lose their 
beauty and have a dull smell. 

If soft winds did not blow over the seas, then what would touch man's face gently? Who 
or what would clean up the air man breathes! 

The waves of the lively seas, and the soft winds of the earth are indeed their smiles. 
Smile, for the smile is the door to man's world. 


ay smiles start from your very eyes. For that smile is the door that opens to the world of 
the soul. 

They asked Joseph the Prophet: "What makes you so incomparably beautiful?" He 

"Throughout my whole life I have engaged in deeds that would please and give benefits 
to others. I smiled at them, 

1 the immortal Helper that arrives unexpectedly and in time to help people when in 


and this made me beautiful in the eyes of those who believe in me." 

Isometimes get so tired. I take the first opportunity to visit the stables at that time. My 
white horse starts neighing and moving around when he hears my footsteps. He expresses 
his love for me like that. He approaches. I caress his head. I comb his mane. I look into 
his eyes that are like apples. Gbrogly's saying comes into my mind: "White horse, if you 
can speak, then do so." Although he can't speak, he expresses his pleasure with his eyes. I 
feel like I should give him a hug. Then I remember G rogly again. I understand better 
why he says, "I didn't wish I had a son, but I wished I had my horse." 

Gorkut Ata says: "When words fall short to convey feelings, then the saz (musical 
instrument) will be in charge." And I've seen that when the saz does not have anything to 
convey, the smile is in charge. The sacred and enchanting smile... 

!■ — 

The smile is home to a sacred blessing and power. 

The lover is ready to sacrifice his life for one single smile of his beloved. 

single smile can touch you with sacred power. 

The poets for centuries have not been able to do more than define the qualities of the 

tniles of those whom they love, 
iiemember I would spare no effort to obtain a single word of gratitude or a smile from my 
mother. I would try to do more than she would ask of me and to please her. 

Today, you are my relatives, friends, protectors my fellow T rkmens! I am sparing no 
effort to win your smiles and gratitude. 


So happy would I be to see that I have a share in your pleasure and happiness! I would 
not regret anything if I could see that. I am ready to sacrifice my sweet life for my nation. 
For no honour in the world would place me higher than the honour of winning your 
smiles and seeing your happiness, my dear T rkmens! 

[lean understand at a single glance whether you're truly smiling and if I see this I will 
understand that my sincerity was not useless. 


"The most beneficial knowledge is the one that works to the benefit of society. 

I One should doubt the authenticity of the kind of knowledge that has no social use. Every 
single deed of man should yield a result. For this is what makes social life possible. 

The scientist should work to help improve society in material and spiritual respects. If the 
scientist forgets this task, then the knowledge he possesses is meaningless, useless and of 
no value. 

Knowledge is not the sum of pieces of information which serve no purpose for anyone. 
False knowledge is the collection of such pieces of information that have no use for 
anyone, just like the wealth accumulated by a mean man. 

The real scientist holds real knowledge. That knowledge should first of all be of use to 
society. This also amounts to saying that it should serve the holder of it too. 

The kind of knowledge disliked by society is vain. 

yThe scientist elevates knowledge, and society elevates the scienti^t^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Asociety cannot live without proper knowledge, just as a man cannot survive without his 
mind. The most vital means of survival granted by Allah to man is the mind. Therefore, 

^mind precedes all other material aspects of the man, such as the hands, legs, working 
tools and hand-power. Centurieslong accumulation leads to proper knowledge. That 
nowledge is a privilege for man. 


It is of that proper knowledge that a man is made. 

The mind is the source of proper knowledge, and wisdom is its seed. 

The soul compensates for the bodily losses of man. It elevates him and proper knowledge 
i is a sign of spiritual completeness and activity. 

Allah Almighty bestowed upon man the mind, which He did not in the case of other 
beings. The human mind becomes more mature with the aid of proper knowledge and 
gains access to more than it initially finds. Man has no wings, but he can fly above the 
birds, thanks to his possession of proper knowledge. He can't move so fast, but proper 
knowledge allows him to reach the greatest of speeds. Man does not have a predator's 
claws, but he can accede to the greatest strength, thanks to proper knowledge. 

The mind and proper knowledge bring man closer to Allah. 

IPossession of proper knowledge allows man to look into the far distance. 

iProper knowledge is a means to save oneself from the flood of life that would otherwise 
have a devastating impact. 

Only proper knowledge can provide an answer to the question of how to live and what to 
do to live. The kind of 




knowledge that fails to provide answers to this question is in fact an illusory attempt, 
totally in vain. 

Man should know himself-, this is what renders him superior. 

Man is indebted in that he should know. 

Knowing means thinking about the world, finding a proper place for oneself in the world 
and proving oneself. 

-The time of the sword is over. But even the sword itself is a product of the mind and m 

proper knowledge. 

When I say the time of the sword is over, I mean that the mind and proper knowledge that 
was once utilized to produce the sword should now be directed to producing and 
inventing new useful things. 

There are three steps to knowing: 



Proper Knowledge. 

Science is a treasure created by mankind. Education is the key to that treasure. It is a door 
that provides access to the world of science through literacy. 

Science teaches man about the treasures and perceptions of those that came before him. 
IMan selects from among these and leaves aside the ones that are of no use to him. He 
takes those pieces he needs and internalizes them. 

Dear fellow citizens ! 

Istarted implementing a "New Science Policy" after major reforms in the fields of science 
and knowledge in the Independent and Eternally Impartial T rkmenistan. The schooling 
of the Soviet era does not meet our contemporary 


needs. The main objective of the science policy is to protect children from the evil 
guidance of the streets, and to provide assistance to parents in guiding their children. 

If the teacher teaches his classes at school and does nothing after that to guide his 
students, then the students will be open to the evils of the streets. There he will adopt 
useless habits. 

^If we wish to protect our children from the evils of the streets, then we should provide 
them with proper guidance in the family and at ,;chool. Our tomorrow lies in the hands of 
our children. If we wish to see in the future an affluent Independent and Impartial 

It rkmenistan respecting science then we should do all that we can to provide proper 

I guidance for our children. 

I think it would be proper to quote a letter I received: 
Dear Saparm.Yrat Atayevi(! 

This letter I am writing to you is not an ordinary one. This is a part of my sincerest 
^feelings, and an indication of my reg ret. 


worked under your supervision. You appointed me to a post that required responsibility, 
and you had confidence in me. You appointed me to the chairmanship of an enterprise, 
though not a major one. But, but... but. 

But Allah decreed an undesirable fate for me. I was brought up in very harsh and difficult 
conditions, and in severe need. Ijust wanted my two sons not to sufferfrom the kind of 
hardships that affected my life. To that end, I stole money, accepted bribes, and 
Accumulated so much wealth that it was enough to use till my death. I bought apartments, 
cars., such beautiful cars. But... 


My younger son had an accident while he was drunk and driving. He almost died. It 
would have been better if he had died. His backbone is severely damaged; he will stay in 
bedfor the rest of his life. My older son acted irresponsibly and wasted time during the 
privileged days of his father, and became a drug-addict. One day we'refine, the next two 
we fight. He squandered all that wealth in five or six years. He made my younger son a 
drug-addict as well. His mother could not bear the sufferings of this world and died of 
heart disease. I suffered a lot when I was a child. I encountered many difficulties. I was 
I raised as an upright man, but the wealth I obtained was of no use to me. 

fistole and fed my children on what is forbidden and unlawful. The improper deeds we 
F engaged in have their effects now. 

My two sons were my sharp eyes; they were my hands andfeet. I would not complain if I 
was blinded at my discretion by a physician. It would be my fair share to live as a 
creature with feet and hands cut off. If only death couldfind me and take my soul away. 
Unfortunately this is not so; I can neither live nor die in this world. This is how I ruined 

E^y future and did the same to both of my sons too. I am the only one to be blamed. Ifed 
y children on what is impermissible and unlawful. Magtymguly was right to say, "You 
will give your account of your proper deeds, but you will definitely be punished for the 
improper, impermissible and unlawful." Now I have received the punishmentfor such... 


Either a devout saint or a criminal can be made out of a child. 

Happy is the man who raises the child as affectionate toward mankind, as a 
knowledgeable person that has the ability to foresee trouble. 


An Atabeg educated the son of a Soltan for 18 years. Upon completion of the education 
the Atabeg awarded him a certificate showing that he had received proper training. The 
Soltan's son was raised as a brave man, a perfect horseman, and as sharp as an eagle. He 
had the mental abilities that would allow him participate in discussions with scholars. The 
Atabeg showed the skills he taught the Soltan's son. The Soltan was pleased and said: 
"Go swim through the sea, my son Oguz" 

The Soltan's son replied, "Master Atabeg did not teach me how to do that." 

The Soltan turned to Atabeg and said: 

"My son's friends could have taught him what you taught. If he ever needs to swim, 
neither his friends, nor 1, nor you could help." 

There are certain things in life with respect to which parents, friends and brothers and 
relatives cannot give any help. Man faces the realities of life many times. At those times, 
one should be able to overcome difficulties without needing assistance from others. If one 
cannot do so, then one is not properly and sufficiently raised. I lived under very difficult 
conditions. It is a mistake to prevent a child from encountering difficulties. Indeed this is 
a form of enmity toward one's own son. The child has to prove to himself certain things 
by undertaking tasks proper to his age. The efforts 


spent earlier by the child will yield positive results for him in the future. 

Proper knowledge is the summit reached after following certain procedures. It is not the 
mere reception of inforination from others; it also has to do with displaying what you 
know to others. 

Proper knowledge prepares one for life, and helps one face the realities of life. 

Proper knowledge means the ability to change and improve life. If one wishes to 
understand whether a form of knowledge is the proper one, one needs to look whether 
that particular form has the ability to change and improve life. If it does, then that is 
proper knowledge. 

Education puts the hands, words and ears of the man into action. Science puts the mind 
into action. Proper knowledge puts these into a coherent unity and moves them in 
directions related to life. 

Science means taking information from others and using it for oneself. 

Proper knowledge means giving information from oneself, and creating from within. The 

greatest miracle is the mind given to man. Proper knowledge can release that power and 

yma ke it appare nt. , 


roper knowledge is the freedom of the mind. 


It is never too late to learn science. The mind does not grow old as the body does. The 
longer one lives, the more sophisticated the mind becomes. 

The teacher is superior to the student. For a student receives training for a couple of years 
only, but the teacher is engaged in education for a lifetime. 


The best teacher is the one that learns when teaching. 

Reviewing your knowledge is the key to science. Adopt it as a habit. Each time you 
review you learn something new; this is the main principle of science. 

Creativity is the essence of proper knowledge. 
I Wisdom is the guide that leads the mind to science. 

Teaching without leaming is similar to spending money without ever earning money. 

Proper knowledge takes worldly and religious forms. Proper religious knowledge is 
aimed at knowing Allah; proper material knowledge is meant to grasp the nature of 
realities. The first yields faith, the second affluence. 

I Everyone has a duty to society. The teacher has a duty to society in that he should 
I provide the youth with proper knowledge and science. 

Proper knowledge should increase our affluence and spiritual strength. 

Science and proper knowledge decrease the likelihood of evil to the minimum. 

' you fail to improve the wisdom given by Allah, you will lose your mental power. 
The best way to learn is to read. And the best way is reading through reflection. If there 
is no reflection, then there is no science at all. 
The real man of proper knowledge has the following properties: 
He doesn't seek to gain material benefits through his possession of proper knowledge; 


He does not see proper knowledge as a form of skill, but thinks it is matter of progress; 

He is calm and modest; 

He has good moral conduct; 

He confirms his words through his actions; 


he type of knowledge of no use to society is meaningless to him. 

Engaging in the type of knowledge that has no social use is similar to trying to sew cloth 
I with a needle with no thread. 

No day is possible without a night, and no society can exist without proper knowledge. 

The real man of proper knowledge is a friend of realities and serves his society. 

My blessed T rkmen nation! The Golden Age must be one where the T rkmen way of 
knowledge must spread to and enlighten the whole world. The doors of proper 
knowledge are always open here. We desire that all T rkmen citizens may have access 
to proper knowledge. Proper knowledge should attract public attention in our country. 
For the 21st century is one of proper knowledge. The door to the Golden lifestyle of the 
Golden Age of the T rkmen passes through proper knowledge. 


Our forefather G n Han's son, D yp yabgy Han, was a wise Soltan, so wise that he 
would himself examine potential employees or others whom he would appoint to posts. 
There were two friends among D ' Yabgy Han's commanders, yp 
Those friends were both very brave, virtuous, handsome and 


I 353 
f polite men. D yp Yabgy Han kept a close eye on the two friends for a long time. He 

once wanted to appoint one of them as the chief commander of armies responsible for 
^ the protection of the whole nation and its lands together with the provision of security^ 



for the Soltan himself. 

D yp yabgy Han issued an order. The guards of the Soltan would go and seize the 
potential chief commander, tie his hands and beat him almost to death, and jail him. And 
later the judges of the country would accuse him of attempting to assassinate the Soltan 
and sentence him to death. 

The commander whom the Soltan was planning to appoint to the post of chief 
commander was thus awaiting death. 

The Soltan subjects the jailed commander's friend to the same plot. He is accused of the 
same crime and jailed. Before the execution of the penalty, the Soltan calls the first 
commander before him and says: 


'T loved you as I did my son. I was planning to appoint you to the office of the chief 
commander, and I now see what you were after." 

The commander replied: 

Soltan of the world, I don't know how I betrayed my country. How could you decide 
that I had done so?" 


The Soltan said: 

"Before I take decisions of any type, I spend much time thinking. This friend of yours 
told me that you were planning an assassination. Here's his letter telling me that." In all 
seriousness, the Soltan told the commander that he had been betrayed by his friend. 
Knowing that the Soltan was a man of integrity, the commander said in a shocked 


"If it is my friend who told you that I was planning that, then do punish me. My friend 
would never lie. I trust him as much as I do myself. The death penalty is right for me." 

The Soltan said nothing in reply. He went to the jail where the commander's friend was 
detained. He told him the same as he had said to his fellow commander. That 
commander said in reply: 

"If it is my friend who did what you said, then carry out the punishment. For my friend 
would prefer death to lying." 

The next day the Soltan called the two friends before him. 

"„Now that I have such upright and honest men like you, there is no castle I can't 
^conquer," said the Sol tan, tears in his eyes. And he told t hem ab out the scheme he had 

planned. The Soltan then appointed one of these fellow commanders to the office of the 
chief commander, and the other to the office of the vizier. 

In fact, it was a tough test. But it is also tough to keep the country afloat in difficult 
times. A friend is a mirror that reflects one's heart. The T rkmen is ready to sacrifice his 
life for his friend. There are many cases in history that exemplify this. No one is to 
sacrifice his life today. But a friend in need is a friend indeed. It is necessary to have 
friends, but this need is much greater at difficult times. One should pay compliments to 
others, say words that express friendliness, know how to appease people and encourage 
people toward life. 
My dear T rkmen Nation! 

PMay friendship and brotherhood always accompany the Ttirkmen. Let us set it as an 
essential principle of our age of independence to pay compliments not only to our 
friends but 



to everyone else, to utter friendly words, to know how to appease people, to encourage 
people toward life and happiness, and to wish a long life and joy for others. 


We should visit the ill and give them moral support. 

"A sweet word can even break up a bone," as the T rkmens say. They say this for they 
believe sincerely in the power and strength of sweet words. 

The T rkmen reached his desired day of independence. Let us adopt friendship and 
brotherhood as our main principle in our independent society. The T rkmen should live 
in unity and be one and the same with fellow T rkmens in our independent nation. 
Friendship is a great power. Let our power of friendship be the main ground on which 
our lives rest. Let it activate our souls, and let it help us reach our desires and goals. May 
it add to the meaning and taste of our lives. 

Man is composed of a body and a soul. The relations between the two components have 
come to change throughout the development of man. 

There are certain activities that take place in man's life. They have a pure form. These 
are related to man's soul and his spiritual composition. The soul is, in essence, free and 
independent. Among the said activities is friendship. Friendship means the harmonious 
relations that result from the love and respect between people. Friendship is a spiritual 
and ethical issue. It is for this reason that friendship is peculiar to human beings, or it is a' 
concept related to man. 

Friendship does not result from any spiritual need of the human being. One does not 
have the option of choosing one's brothers. It is not dependent upon one's wish that one 
yhas a brothel B ut having friends is at one' s own d iscreti on J 




and will. That means friendship is a spiritual need and is an evident indication of human 
personality and freedom. 

It is the man's internal wishes and his inner "self that motivate him to have a friend or 
friends. The human soul looks for a fellow that shares the same thoughts, same fate, 
same inclinations and character as him. As such, a friend is the inner "self of the person 
who seeks a friend. For as soon as one feels that he has matured as a person one starts 
seeking an individual close to him. Those who succeed in finding such people are happy. ' 
Just as one rarely comes across real love, so does one rarely find real friendship. Making 
friends, being friends to others is a rarely accomplished task. 

There is a story full of examples that is about how the T rkmen values his brother: 

Once a family had to escape from the enemy. But there was one horse to ride in the 
attempt, it would be able to carry a limited number of people to a limited distance. 

Then the young man thought and took his brother first to the horse, and escaped the 

I enemy, and saved all his family so, as the story goes. 
Only brothers can understand their mutual values, and the one who gave birth to them. 

If parents die, among the remaining children the oldest in age replaces the parents. He is 
to raise all the other children, help them be educated, maffy and socialize. I remember 
reciting the following lines when I was a child: 

my brother, o my brother 

Whose head is high, upright brother, 
I Fights against the enemy together 


speaks like a castle in support of you! 
You are the shield in my left hand 
nd the dagger in the right, my dear brother! 

Even the younger of twin babies should pay due respect to and greet the older when they 
grow up, no matter that they were bom on the same day and at the same hour. 

Two brothers make the two hands of the same body. One hand washes the other hand, 
but two hands together can wash the face. 

yOur father Oguz Han told his elder sons that they were t he bow and told the younger ^ 


ones that they were the affow, and they had to go where the bow sent them. 

Abrother and his elder brother should pay respect to one another. 

When the T rkmen wishes to speak well of someone, he says, "May your brother be 
your friend, and your friend your brother." The friend and the brother are the same in 

Afriend is one's second "self. But it is not possible to say the same of every brother. The 
|T rkmen says, "Identify the brave man by looking at his friend." A man's friend is a 
r measure against which that man is evaluated. A man becomes a friend only to people 

who are close to his heart and with whom he has a rapport. 


If it is blood relations that fix brotherhood, then what measures friendship? In old 
T rkmen thought, every man had a jinn. The jinns were short in height, and their napes 
were as bright as their faces. Every man's jinn always stood nearby. When walking, the 
jinn would go a few steps in front. 


Therefore, before men contacted one another, their jinns had contact and talked to each 
other. If the two jinns that met before the men could have rapport with each other, then 
the two men would also become friends. For this reason, we have certain idioms in the 
T rkmen language such as, "His jinn could not get close," or, "His jinn did not like the 

lam not talking about these national characteristics only because they are interesting by 
nature. What I wish to say in particular is that in this old line of thought, one sees clearly 
that friendship is a pure and spiritual thing. For the jinns are not after any material 
benefits whatsoever. They don't have any special wishes either. They established 
relations only on the basis of whether each one's "self agreed to talk with the other. This 
means that real friendship has nothing to do with material benefits. It is first of all the 
harmony between souls, characteristics and ideas. 

Therefore there are different kinds of friends: 

True friends; 

Friends of gluttony; 

Friends of women; 

Friends of material values; 

Friends of professional posts. 

Only the first one is your real friend. All the rest are false and after their own benefits 
[from you. 

Friendship is a great concept. For it relieves one of spiritual loneliness. Since friendship 
is an excellent matter of ethics, there are many beautiful literary works on friends and 




Friendship between the same genders, mentahty or interests are usual. 


The relations between two people take place in the private world where third parties are 
ot allowed to intervene. 

The friendship between the brave man and his horse are dealt with in many beautiful 
works. These works define friendship as sharing the same destiny and the relations 
between the two in moments of difficulty. This is the sincerest form of friendship. 

There is a friendship between man and his Creator. Allah the Almighty's friends are 
called saints or holy people. These are people that devote all their lives, and bodily and 
spiritual assets to Allah. Some of them even avoided marriage so that their hearts were 
not divided. 

"You told all your secrets to that friend of yours. What if he intends to speak ill of you 
and discloses them to the public?" one man asked another. That man replied: 

"If that friend of mine speaks ill of me and discloses my secrets to the public, then life 
would be meaningless for me. It wouldn't be worth living then. For that friend of mine is 
the meaning of life for me." 

■The friend is what gives meaning to life. When one talks sincerely to one's close friend. 
Tone feels relaxed. Man wishes to talk about certain things that cannot remain inside him. 
' Such things man can share with his friend. Then he will become relaxed. 



Friendship means devotion of one's heart to another person. This means friendship is an 
lability that resides in the heart. The heart's main ability is to love. 

Friendship is affection, compassion and mercy. 


The wealthiest is he who is rich in love and mercy. 

^ T rkmens should be rich in love, compassion and mercy. Independent and Eternally 
llmpartial T rkmenistan should be a country of friendship and brotherhood. 


L Wealth is not an end in itself, it is a means. A means to become a proper man. 

Wealth provides benevolence as long as it remains as a means. When it becomes an end 
I in itself, it works counter to the good of man and does severe harm to man, and in the d 
yend, destroys man ' totally. In that case, wealth acquires that man, and the man himself^J 


becomes a tool. 

Wealth should be at man's service, and not vice versa. Therefore one of the most 
important problems in life is this: What should one's view of wealth be? What matters is 
Ithat one should not surrender his heart to wealth. In that case you will always manage 
wealth. One should really be able to manage wealth because man has the following 
essence: Allah created man out of light and soul, whereas all types of wealth are 
material, so such material things must be at men's service. Therefore, excessive love of 
worldly goods is attempting to be the ruled rather than the Ruler. 

Your bodily appetites are the most dangerous threats to you. If you do not put an end to 
them at the beginning, then they can devastate you completely. 

Wealth is water and man is the seed. If you use water sparingly and use it efficiently, 
you will obtain great amounts of crop out of the seed. If there is insufficient water, the 
seed will die. And if there is more than necessary, then the seed 


will rot. Find the golden ratio between drought and devastation, and this will make a 
man out of you. 

If you do not satisfy your desires by saving, contentedness and spirituality, then you will 
not be able to satisfy them through material things. Greed will debase man, and it will 
make enemies out of his relatives. 

Bodily appetites are a problem; your modest self is the solution. Your modest self can 
teach you how to live happily on limited resources. 

Wealth is a flood. You cannot a resist a flood. It is preferable to step aside and avoid the 
flood. What can save you from that flood is your modest and contented heart. 

Bodily appetites cause greediness. 

Allah Almighty created everything in such a way that creatures can decompose in 
themselves. Your bodily appetites might ruin you from within at an unexpected moment. 

I Be concerned about your head, and not about your stomach. 

■The best thing in the world is holy light. The best kind of wealth is spiritual wealth. 

If you have enough for your subsistence, then don't try to be rich. 

Everything is transitory. So is wealth. Allah is the possessor of time. All wealth belongs 

to Allah and he gives extra wealth to the wealthy. He bestows wealth in your account. It 

y^ deposited in the names of peop le, So that w ealth is in fact not yours but granted or 


deposited to your account. Wealth cannot last forever. For it cannot stay at a certain 
place. It transfers from one name to another by the order of Allah. 



The man who is rich in his modest self and heart is indeed one who does not surrender 
himself to wealth, and run after it greedily. 

If the amount of labour spent equals the wealth acquired, then that wealth will be 
acquired through halal or proper means. 

Wealth acquired through improper (haram) means is the kind acquired through the abuse 
of others. 

Proper wealth comes after honest deeds, and improper wealth follows from deceit. 

lAUah made you wealthy so that you may use what you have for the benefit of humanity. 
■The best kind of wealth is the one utilized to the benefit of society. 

Proper wealth is an equal of faith. 

Generosity is the sign of propriety, and meanness is the sign of impropriety. 


If a man cannot free himself, society cannot free that man, either. One can free oneself 
through integrity. Integrity gives you the right to live as an upright man and to feel 
relaxed. An honest man will never feel guilty. 

Let your thoughts and plans be true in esse nee, let your words be right and let the jobs 
you do be proper in nature. This is how real truth will come around. 

Proper acquisition of wealth, and spreading the accumulation of this type of wealth 
everywhere is directly proportional to concerns over the unity and oneness of society, 
and social well-being and happiness. When wealth is acquired in improper ways, the 
moral structure of society is harmed, and society is damaged gradually. Honest men are 
a guarantee of faith and security in a society. They are the 


means to purify the moral conduct of the society. The more honesty there is, the better 
humanity will be. 

Maintenance of wealth and utilizing it in proper ways are more difficult than acquiring 
it. The first condition for utilizing wealth for proper ends is the acquisition of it through 
proper means. I do get upset when I see that some people are spending money on 
improper deeds. Learn more about how to spend when one is wealthy. When you earn, 
spend so that your expenditure benefits your nation, relatives and family! Spend so that 

)rk 1 


your spirit becomes richer, your reputation grows, and your mind and knowledge 
expands! Strive to be consistent in your spending or using your wealth. Do not let 
additional spiritual benefits leave you by depending on one single such benefit. Work 
always, so that the spring of wealth continuously releases sources. Always focus on this 
issue. Wealth should make you closer to the ordinary people, rather than separating you 
from them. You need your mind to be rich. Buried money is of no use to you or society. 
That will only add to your fears, hesitations and doubts. It will ultimately cause 
problems for you. 

Wealth that does not benefit the public is not real wealth. That is not Golden wealth, but 
an ordinary piece of iron. Wealth is not the pleasure of one's self, but it is the interest of 
the public. If you utilize wealth for proper and righteous ends, it will grow. If you don't, 
it will shrink. For the value of wealth will be evident after its proper use. 

Avoid doing improper deeds with the wealth you have. That is the gravest of all sins. 
Investing money in the exchange of things that lead astray or corrupt people in fact does 
harm to one's nation. For the gains you make out of such investment would only be a 
disaster that your own family would suffer from. 


Wealth results from labour. But work not for extra gains first of all. In the beginning 
work to survive and be happy to a modest extent. The amount you need for survival will 
be enough for you live on properly. The kind of wealth acquired improperly is the total 
of gains unjustly seized from others. 

Properly acquired wealth is a blessing. Get others to call you not merchant, but blessed, 
noble. Let people see that your wealth is legitimate and blessed and not without 
legitimacy or blessing. Labour helps you survive. Proper labour relieves man of his 
illnesses, being upset, greedy and poor. 
Laziness is the essence of one's bodily self. 
Labour is the source of being blessed. 
Labour is also the source of wealth. 

■Think about how you will make use of your wealth before attempting to acquire it. Don't 
iwait too long to think about it. If you don't know where and how you will spend it, then 
r unfortunate results await you. 

The real T rkmen is the one whose heart moves away from the concept of wealthiness 
as he gets wealthier He does not display arrogance on the grounds that he has 
accumulated lots of wealth. Nor does he become upset if his wealth decreases. The 
wealthier he becomes, the broader his horizons get since he can find proper ways to 
make use of his wealth for his own needs and to the benefit of society. 

Wealth is the foundation and its construction on that ground is Allah's mercy. 

Let your wealth be at the service of your spiritual world. I 

Wealth is not the possessor of man but man is the possessor of wealth. Now that you are 
the master already, don't try to become the slave! 


Once in ancient times a modest fanner had two sons. They told their father: 

"Father, we wish to travel the whole world and look for the means of subsistence that 
will make us happy. We would like to give it a try. If we become very poor, we will 
come back and follow your path," and they left the village. 

Allah's grace made them meet a saint on the way. The saint said: 

i "Boys, you are the sons of a generous farmer, ask of me whatever you wish to have. It is 
1 my duty to fulfil it." 

"The more knowledgeable of the young boys, mounted on a farm horse said: 

"May Allah thank you, I did not come to this world to call out prayers and wishes all 
day. I can work. I am mentally sound. If I am not worthy of what I have, may I find what 
I'm worth." 


The saint said in reply: 

"May Allah be with you, my son, go find your fortune." 
The other young boy, who was riding on a mare, said: 

"My master, how lucky that I met you. I don't want to spend my whole life trying to earn 
just one loaf of bread. Give me wealth." 

"OK, pass through this river, and you'll find a cave in the mountains there. You will see 
a grand gate to the cave. Open that gate and take the treasure inside," said the saint and 
gave him the key. "My advice is that when you go to get the treasure, just don't forget 
the real thing." 

Obviously the young boy did not listen to the advice of the saint, for he had learned 
exactly where the treasure was. 


He took off his clothes, held the key in his teeth and jumped into the river. He swam to 
the other side of the river. As the saint had told him, he reached the cave and opened its 
door. He saw that there was a great treasure inside. But he had nothing with him to put 
|the treasur e in; he had no bag or sack! Then the boy realized that he had forgotten to take j 

the real thing. Nevertheless, he tried to take as much as he could and left the cave. He ^| 
wished to enter again, but the door was closed already. The saint appeared nearby at that " 
very moment: 

"So, that's your share of the treasure, young boy! Because you forgot three essential 
things: First, you should have thought about how much you should take, second, how to 
take it, and third you left the key to wealth inside for a fistful of gold!" 

Once upon a time a saint was told to visit a mean man called so-and-so who lived in 
such-and-such street. 



The saint arrived at that man's house in the evening. He knocked at the door. The mean 
man asked: 

"Who is that?" The saint replied: "I'm a visitor that Allah sent; I thought you would be 
able to help me." 

"That's fine. If you are a visitor that Allah sent, then there is a little mosque over there. 
Go there and stay as long as you wish. Obviously Allah will not expel you from that 
place," replied the mean man, without even opening the door. 


Facing this unexpectedly, the saint turned back towards his home. But before he left he 
saw that a poor man was warming himself close to an oven in the mean man's garden. 
The saint approached and the poor man, who did not know the saint who greeted him 
said: "Come, have a rest." 

"What are you up to here?" the saint asked. 


"The judge has called me before him tomorrow. I have no place to stay now, nor do I 
have anything to eat. I saw that the oven was very hot. I think loaves of bread have just , 
been baked in it. I took the smell of the bread, that fed my desire, and with the oven's 
heat I have warmed up my body." 

The next day, the saint accompanied the man to the office of the judge. The judge 
assessed the case and gave the man the death penalty. The judge asked the poor man: 

"You will be executed in the afternoon. Tell us your last wish." 

"I complain of nobody in this world, but they call Turan $ah a man of justice. If he is 
really so, may he let me dig my own grave in the ruins of a former estate of ours, and 
may he allow me to be buried there," the poor man said. 


The Soltan was informed of the man's wish, and gave permission for what he wanted. 
The Soltan thought: 

"There is an interesting side to this event. Let me see for myself how the man digs his 
grave. For this is the first time a criminal has requested something like this." The 
Soltan then went to the ruins where the man would be. He saw that the criminal was 
digging his grave in the comer of the field. Those who saw the Soltan all stood up and 
greeted him. The criminal dared to extend a hand to salute the Soltan. The Soltan did 
not feel offended since the man would soon be executed. The Soltan said: 
"I read the decree ordered by the judge. There are three witnesses against you, but you 
have none who will speak for 


my Soltan, I had two such witnesses. Didn't you just hear them speak a while ago?" 


"I heard them indeed, but the judge wouldn't accept them as witnesses." 

Thinking that the criminal was trying to avoid execution, the judge cried out: 

"He has no witnesses." 

The man was still digging at that time. He unearthed a large jar at the bottom of the 
pit. He took the jar out of the pit. They opened it to see that it was full of golden coins. 

The Soltan said: 

"Here he has a third witness." 
The saint added: 

"No, my Soltan, the witnesses are four in number." 
The judge grew angry and asked: 
"How come? Where are the witnesses?" 
I The Soltan said in reply: 

"Didn't you just notice the man's hands when you first came up to him? His palms 
have got callouses on them. A man whose hands are so because of the hard labour he 
has done cannot be engaged in theft. His two witnesses are his two hands!" 

The saint continued: 

"I heard a secret voice telling me to look for my share in the property of a mean man. 
But that mean man did not even take time to open his door to me. Therefore not the 
^ mean man, but this man who was wa rming himself up next to the mean man's oven ^ 

found a fortune. Neither the judge nor you, my Soltan, is to be blamed. For if this man 
had not been sentenced to death, and if Allah had not inspired in him 

r . I 



the feeling that made him wish to be buried in these ruins that once belonged to him, 
then this fortune would never have come out. By Allah's will, this man has found the 
fortune he had a right to have." 

The T rkmen has a peculiar and interesting understanding of material wealth. The 
T rkmen does not like material wealth. But that kind of wealth is essential sometimes. 
The T rkmen adopts a modest way as usual with respect to that mattel Man should 
not yield to material wealth, for this would make man greedy; but complete denial of it 
would make him abstain from the world as a whole. 

The proper thing to do is to find the medium way. But to do that requires the existence 
of your own moral values and a philosophy. What does the T rkmen's philosophy say 
in this respect? 

That philosophy aims at adding a s' iritual aspect to wealth. The T rkmen has never 
praised wealth to an excessive extent. Money, wealth and material things have never 
occupied a significant place in the T rkmen's heart. But properly acquired wealth is 
welcomed by the T rkmen. He thinks that kind of wealth is a fortune and he respects 
such wealthy people. 

How does wealthiness differ from proper wealthiness? At first sight, it seems as if 
there is no difference since they both refer to material things. But the matter concerns 
the thoughts behind them. Every idea is a measure against which the extent to which 
the citizens agree to the truth can be measured. Material things do not differ from one 
another but ideas are totally different. 

Wealthiness refers to ordinary material things. 

"Proper wealthiness" refers to the material benefits that 


have a spiritual aspect. That kind of wealth is acquired through proper work. The 

benefits are the gifts granted by Allah to man in return for his honest deeds. This 

wealth and these gifts relate directly to the proper deeds. Properly acquired wealth 

does not lead one to excessive behaviour or bad deeds. This is the essence of the whole 


Proper wealthiness is limited in amount. Allah grants to every being its proper share. 
That is, Allah loves those who are moderate. For sure, no one will be granted another's 
share since man does not need a great amount of wealth to survive. But there is no 
spiritual limit to proper wealthiness. Therefore try to acquire proper wealth and not 
material wealth. Material wealth will lead you out of the way. Material wealth is the 
^ source and result of improper acts. Proper wealth is acquired proper deeds and it leads j 



one to a pure soul and ethical conduct. 

The T rkmen of the Golden Age should limit himself in material respects, and should 
try to gain all that he can spiritually. 

Improperly acquired wealth will be the share of those who are impropel Therefore, 
those who acquire improper wealth develop uncontrollable inclinations toward 
improper deeds. His desires shackle the man, and he becomes their slave. The total of 
these desires is called the "evil self by the T rkmens. 

Properly acquired wealth and comfort purifies one's heart. The man with a pure heart 
feels that a giant force stands behind him. He has no sins to be ashamed of, he is clear 
before everyone else, before the nation and before Allah. This is spiritual freedom. 

Wealth enslaves the man, properly acquired wealth yields freedom. 


Escape slavery, march toward freedom! 

If you want to build a house you should first flatten the ground and lay a foundation. 

Wealth brings evils to the unskilled. You see many examples of this in your daily life. 
The T rkmens say, "Even the beggar needs to spend some effort." To be wealthy, you 
should first prepare yourself for the idea of being wealthy. Then you should learn how 
to maintain that wealth. Maintaining wealth is more difficult than acquiring it. This is 
the all the more difficult for the T rkmen. The T rkmen is generous in material and 
moral terms. The T rkmen is like the Hatam Tayam, who was a generous man. 

lam not arguing for meanness, stinginess or greediness. But I don't like profligacy 
I either. The best way is the modest way. The modest way is the Golden guide! 

The T rkmen nation has access to infinite wealth. Our citizens may become richer 
and richer if I distribute all we have to them. But are our people ready for such 
richness after 70 years of poverty? 

"It is the sheep that likes comfort, especially the sheep darkest in colour." 

Man needs great willpower to be able to cope with wealth. Man needs to have a 
comprehensive grasp of things, be wise and thoughtful to be able to cope with wealth. 
Dignity is essential! 

One of my main goals is to prepare the T rkmen nation for the acquisition of wealth. I 
am making my nation adapt itself to wealth slowly. Your lives are improving day by 
day, year by year. Maybe you don't notice this. But this does not escape my eye even 
^ for a single mom ent. m 



The T rkmen nation must be one that can cope with wealth and that can utihze wealth 
to the benefit of society and its bright future. 

Adopt it as your desire to acquire proper wealth. My main goal is to realize this desire 
of yours. When we join hands, we will definitely reach our targets. 




Those who love deeply and who marry their beloveds in sincerity and deep affection 
are the fortunate ones whose ways are paved by life and Allah! 

Men who respect their wives and who can get on well with them without harsh 
quarrels and without being attached to an excessive extent are those lucky people who 
have a great fortune. It is unity and integrity, fortune and mutual understanding that 
prevail in such a family. Such a family is a very fortunate one. 

The woman is the Soltan of the home; she presides over the household! 

Women should be given their proper value through affection, love, and mutual respect. 

If newly-weds do not treat each other with respect from the first day of their marriage, 
but always do harm to one another and damage their reputation, then in-laws will not 
respect them for long. Then their relatives and neighbours will not respect them either. 
In this case, one or other of the pair starts struggling for survival day and night, and the 
two of them fight with one another and the relatives and neighbours. Gorkut Ata 
wished that one might be protected by Allah against the evils of a bad spouse. Yet 
Allah will not 


protect one from a bad spouse because, "even a monster would flee from such a 
spouse," as they say. 

Asweet word opens all doors; a bitter one causes enmity toward you! 

It is the husband's and his relatives'duty to help the new bride to get used to the habits 
and behaviour of the family. 

The T rkmen have a beautiful tradition; a new bride bows her head to her father-in- 
law and mother-in-law, then the daughters in the house take her to the neighbours' and 
relatives' houses. The bride greets them in the same way. She shows respect to her new 
^ relatives by complying with this wise T rkmen tradition. This amounts to saying that _ 

if you have respect for your husband, then you should also show respect to his family. 
That is how relationships are grounded on the foundation of respect. May this respect 
and affection turn into a great love and friendship as time passes. May the new bride 
be the most beloved and beautiful bride of the family and the neighbourhood. This 
depends on how the men act in this regard. I 

There is a principle in life: One should choose a profession and spouse for oneself in 
youth. However the young have their heads in the clouds. They wish they could maffy 
the most beautiful and cleverest girls. But the wisest thing to do is to choose your 

I remember listening to a story when I was a child: 

Once, a young boy jumped into the river to swim. He sees with surprise that a water 
fairy is swimming in the river unaware of what is happening around her. The young 
boy moves close to her without being seen and catches the fairy: 

"I love you. Marry me!" he says. 


The fairy replies: 

"Brave boy, your lot is to be loved. But you cannot live under water, and I cannot live 
above it. This love would ruin us. The best we can do is for me to try to realize some 
wishes of yours. But be wise and choose your equal as your beloved! " 

i The fairy then tells the young boy to swim across the river and light a fire at the foot of 
the mountain. She gives a lock of her hair to the young boy before he leaves, and tells 
him to put the hair into the fire he will light. The moment the young boy does what she 
says, the skirt of the mountain splits into two and a grand door opens. The young boy 
enters through the door and sees a magic mirror the fairy mentioned before he came to 
the cave. The young boy looks at his image in the mirror for a long time and then 
walks through the curtain hanging there. He is startled. He sees a fairy living in a fine 
and beautiful mansion, and he starts trembling as soon as he looks her in the eye. To 
that fairy's right was another fairy. She was hardly visible as her clothes were so 
heavily embroidered in pearls, silvers and golden jewellery. On the left was another 
fairy displaying affection, love and merciful feelings. 

The young boy looked at the fairy girls for a while and took away the one that was 
living in the highest place. As soon as they left the cave the beauty of the fairy 
surpassed the light of the sun. Proud, the young boy looked at the fairy and got a huge 
shock: the beautiful fairy whose hand he was holding was in fact a snake. Surprised, 
the young boy calls out to the water fairy: 


"Who is this I am holding in my hand? Wasn't it a fairy?" 
y^"She is not a snake. By the w ill of ahoV. cV.^ .t.;ii ^^^ 






become a monster after your wedding!" 

"What harm did I cause to you? Why did you give me a monster?" 

"Didn't I tell you to look in the mirror at the cave's entrance?" 

"Yes, you did, and I did what you said." 

"Although you did, it seems that you couldn't see yourself properly. Although you saw 
yourself in the mirror, it seems you didn't recognize yourself properly. You were silver 
yourself and you took away the golden fairy. It'll be a fairy one day, and a monster for 
the next two. Your share was the girl who was displaying affection and mercy. She 
was the proper one for you. You won't be a lover to the fairy you chose, you'll only be 
a slave to her." The water fairy then plunged deep into the sea and disappeared. 


One who marries a wealthy girl without considering his own poverty will obviously 
have to suffer from many difficulties. He lives on earth, but falls in love with the one 
in the sky. He sticks to a branch where he shouldn't, and this becomes a lifetime's evil 
for him. 

Know yourself, and know the girl you will love and choose for yourself! 

If a man and a woman pass over the bridge of love, then they will always be happy! 

I If the man and the woman pass over the bridge of logic and wisdom, then they will 
have a long-lasting family! 

I If the man and the woman are not proper for each other, then this family will be an 
unhappy one! 

It is the child that brings strength, friendship, love and happiness to the family. The 
existence of a child in a 


household turns the love between the man and the woman into one between the father 

and the mother. That is the noblest among the various kinds of love. For the parents 

can dedicate their whole lives and happiness to their child, and this gives them 


My advice to the young is to love and be loved but be fit for one another! You can tie 
a horse and an ox to the same carriage, but then that carriage is not a carriage proper, 
and you cannot go any further with it. 

y_The w oman is the ground on whi ch the household stand s. One wishing to have a long-j 


lasting family should first respect the woman who works hard for the good of the 
household. The woman will then spare no effort for the household. 

i The husband and the wife constitute a new family, a new household and a new core. 
No matter how many children you have, if the ground is tom up, then the household 
becomes uncared for. When the woman is gone, then the comfort of the household is 
gone. When the man is gone, a major component of the household is gone. Allah 
created everything in pairs. The sky and the earth, the Moon and the Sun and even the 
mountains and the seas exist as counterparts of one another. 

Win T rkmen folklore, in the tale of Akpamik, the souls of the giants are kept secure in 
" a glass jar under a rock. That is why no one can kill the giants. As the soul of the man 
is maintained in the heart of his beloved, they have the desire to live. The courtesy of 
the beloved elevates men and makes them persevering. If a man's wife is at odds with 
him at home, then he will not be spiritually strong at work or in other places. The man 
whose wife awaits him with deep love, who has no credit in his own home is easily 
recognized through facial expression, speech and clothing. 




In another tale, once they asked the Moon: 

"You sometimes become full and polish the world with your silver light; and 
sometimes you are very small and one can hardly see you in your crescent form. What 
is the reason behind this?" 

"When my husband the Sun smiles at me I will be the full Moon; I become very 
happy. And when he glares at me angrily, I become so small that I cannot be seen." 

OYouth! Each of you is a Sun. If you smile at your wives they will fill the world with 
light just as the Moon does. 

In fact, the T rkmen nation is one that knows how to be thankful to Allah, how to 
save, and how to maintain the traditions of their forefathers. It has no respect for 
digressions from the true path. 

The great independence of our nation, the sovereignty and freedom of our nation, and 
the eager spirit of our "lOYear Development" program and the national development 
movement requires us to maintain and add to the value of each and every acre of our 
land as if maintaining pieces of gold. 

Small peoples that survive by depending on a greater state lose their own traditions 
and get intermingled with the people of the sovereign people. But we the T rkmens 
have not lost our identities and we are protecting our traditions. We have great plans 
and we want to become a great nation. This we must be proud of. 


My beloved people! If this Ruhnama inspires your souls, then you will not need to 
worry about your powers to 





sustain the development of T rkmenistan's independence and the peace and comfort 
of its citizens and to protect its land. 

Our youth and the rest of our nation should be strong morally and be rich in spiritual 

From now on, we should make sure our entire T rkmen nation, our grandmothers, our 
grandfathers, our children in kindergarten, our young boys and girls, never loses its 
enthusiasm. We should always strive to make our people happy. Honesty should be 
their companion; they should be enthusiastic with pure desires and wishes. 

Apeople living in its own land freely and independently and without fear is a happy 

Nothing in history could degrade the humane qualities and hospitality of the T rkmen 
nation. Neither has anything reduced its spiritual power. Any T rkmen you can come 
up with would either be writing a poem or playing a musical instrument to express his 
or her happiness. Many of the lines that Magtymguly recited as the signs of the 
brilliant T rkmen spirit have already become proverbs in the daily lives of the 
T rkmen nation: 

Pyragy asks from the T rkmen land / May the enemy keep away from its red rose / 
Before we pass away / May the enemy retreat immediately!.. mankind, the T rkmen 
land is my land / No other farther land is preferable to me... Pyragy my eyes are so 
tired reflecting upon the homeland / It seems that I will remain apart from my 
homeland ... May vast lands Hydyr wonders about be the share of ours/ Let our 
homeland be settled and permanent / May we eat at the same 



table ... A brave son comes from a brave father, a coward will never become brave, / 
Never will a land be unpleasing if those bom in that land are honest! ... Rather than 
remaining homesick in lands far away, / I'd prefer my being in my homeland despite 
difficulties, or bad treatment ... Come my self, listen to my advice,/ May you not leave 
your hometown ... Fighting against one another is not an affair for true men, / This is 
the devil's affair, or maybe they are blind against one another, / Conflicts will remove 
peace from our land / And this will give the enemy privilege in this world ... Pyragy I 
fell in love, / 1 jumped into the sea and was captured by the waves, / May my 
descendants not be held low, / 1 wish for a sustainable peace ... The great lands will 
disperse and slacken / If the brave men do not remain so ... A land in conflict, / Is as if 
it lost peace ... One would be ashamed / If the country was headless ... If I stole your 
valuables I did not mean to assault you / Since I am the poor, I have no place other 
than beside you..." 

^ My de ar T rkmen! Let me b riefly express some of my advice to y ou. We've been 

living as a free and independent people for 10 years. 

Our souls become one in various festivals and commemoration days attended by all 
the public in every comer of our nation to remember past sorrows and anniversaries. 
These events contribute to the spiritual strength of our people. They make people 
closer to one another. This is life, and it bears an infinite number of difficulties. The 
festivals help us erase these difficulties from our minds. 

Each T rkmen should enthusiastically celebrate our fes- 



tivals in the way our ancestors did. Life will seem to be a form of beauty, the bright 
future in the vision of smiling faces, smiling eyes and tired souls who are celebrating 
one event here and another there. 

T rkmen rugs, jewellery and handmade golden and silver products should always be 
exhibited in those events. Our historical silverware and goldware have come to be the 
favourites of women as beautiful as fairies. The T rkmen horse should be on view at 
every event. Our historical silverand goldware that somehow appear in the world 
market are priceless. Famous movie artists, theatre stars, famous women of arts and 
letters would deem it a privilege to own T rkmenmade silver- and goldware. 

Pay attention to the jewellery wom by T rkmen girls; the gupba-tuvulga, qekelik- 
bukav protects the neck from attacks with swords, the g lyaka protects the chest. The 
bracelet covers the wrist, and various pieces attached on the front and back of dresses 
prevent injuries from arrows and spears. If the T rkmen girl wears all her jewellery, 
she becomes like a warrior shielded by her jewellery. Calculations tell us that a woman] 
should be carrying a total of 36 kilograms of silver and gold if she wears all her 
jewellery. The T rkmen praises the woman highly. 

Our forefathers said of the various kinds of saz (musical instruments) that add colour 
to celebrations and festivals, "Music and celebrations provide guidance for man. The 
celebration relates to the bodily world, and the music relates to the spiritual world. 
When combined, the celebration and the music will guide man's material and spiritual 

Iwish to say, "If you want to understand the characteristics of the states and nations, 
listen to their music; if you wish to know of the level of happiness in the family listen 


and see how songs and music find reflection in that household!" When setting 
out for warfare, our ancestors brought with them musical instruments, standards 
I and flags to support the enthusiasm of the soldiers. The sound of the K s, 
reminiscent of thunder, the sounds of the zuma that shake hearts, and the sacred 
tone of the gicak2 have all been sources of power, courage and inspiration for 
the T rkmens. Each musical group plays seven to twelve instruments. Now is 
j the time to show the whole world the continuity of the rich Tijrkmen music with | 
its national qualities pleasing the ear and soul, inspired by our ancestors. And 
first we ourselves should own and reclaim it. 

Ihave travelled in almost all the places in the T rkmen land consecrated by the 
Lt rkmen nation. I travelled recently to the highly esteemed Uzboy. 

[Uzboy means the place where the houses of Oguz stand in order next to one 
' another. In the past, the villages and towns of the T rkmen people were 

arranged in order by the Jeyhun. Gardens, springs, trees, and flowers and all the 
I facilities needed all stood in unity. This was called the T rkmen garden. And 

now? Nothing but ruins. Deserted villa es and towns. See the plain that lies 
I below; all the graves are dug into the ground and lost. The graveyard is the 

memory of history! Why did Oguz leave Uzboy? Because the Oguz river dried 

up. If there is no water, then there is no life. The Oguz had to migrate because of 


I Although it is centuries since the Jeyhun river changed its bed and left Uzboy, 
Lwe still see little ponds here and there. There are wild grasses around them! Part 
lof the water in those ponds came from the ground and part is still not salty. 

"2 a small stringed musical instrument made out of a gourd keeping its original 
shape and played with a fiddle on the knee 


I One still sees T rkmen villagers in Uzboy who are engaged in animal 
husbandry. The grass and dried shoots are in fact invaluable for livestock and 
wild animals as food during wintellt is also a haven for wild game and hunting 

' animals! 

Water is scarce in T rkmenistan. Were it possible, we would re- vitalize the 
Uzboy for the sake of the memory of our ancestors who were not pleased with 
the situation of Uzboy in the past. 

Wait, my Uzboy! One day I hope you will recover your former beauty. We have 
^started building the T rkmen lake here. One day we will transfer its endless 

/aters to you through refineries and provide you with an abundant amount of 
^water. The T rkmen nation will follow the path left by their ancestors and hoist 
fcthe green flag of life in Uzboy again! 

If Allah helps us, the T rkmen's gardens will be watered and the waters will 
I reflect their full dazzling colours, fragrance and splendour once again. 

The whole of T rkmenistan will have many productive gardens! 

I This matter should be adopted as a state policy. My dear T rkmen! Make every 
L effort to make a paradise out of T rkmenistan. I am calling out to every 

wealthy T rkmen family. Those wishing to pay their indebtedness to Allah and 

the public should plant a tree in the streets, gardens, neighbourhoods and 

graveyards that are nearby! 

My Dear Country! 

■Every people aspires to wealth. Such aspirations cannot be realized unless they 
"are guided and led by the state. In order to render Ruhnama the T rkmen's 
essence, present, 


and future, we need administrators who are wise, foreseeing and who have not 
I engaged in any improper and unlawful deeds. If you want to be a proper 
[ headman, you will act as if you are mother or father to the whole village. You 

leed to be a man that serves the village day and night. If you think that you are 
Fthe owner of the village and hold your interests superior to those of the villagers 

then the way you lead people will diverge from our way. 

If you are a district governor or governor, then you will have the whole district's 
I or city's burden on your shoulders. If you cannot warm the people under your 
administration with justice in the way instructed in Magtymguly's lines, "If you 
are a judge, then warm your public equally in the way the Sun does," then you 
, will not be a proper official. 

^In today's world where we are leading a peaceful and harmonious life, various 

rkmen officials must be supportive of the chief leader of the T rkmen in the 
event of a catastrophe, or other disasters that might arise out of the bad will of 
domestic and external forces (May Allah protect us in such cases). Standing 
before threatening bullets and agreeing to die or hiding at times of difficulty are 

^defined as cowardliness by the T rkmens. There is a T rkmen saying in this 
:ontext which runs, "Cowardliness is far worse than death." 

I My Dear T rkmen ! 

Unite in days of happiness and sorrow as proper T rkmen! ... If you stand 
united, there is no difficulty that you cannot overcome. 

I Whenever the T rkmens got stronger, they yielded to internal conflicts and 
:aused their powerful states to collapse. We should learn our lesson from history! 

and reinforce our unity. 


These words are valid for state officials, department administrators, factory 
managers, governors, and in sum for all T rkmen administrators. I will give 
I you some information on three official decrees out of a total of 36 issued in the 
I year 1 150 by Soltan Sanjar's imperial office. These are found in the official 
.archives called, "Steps to improve clerks." 

"Appointment to the governor's office in G rgen and vicinities 

Allah (Praise be to Him) granted us the Sultanate with all His All-encompassing 
Compassion and infinite Mercy. He gave us keys to conduct official 

I responsibilities and the means to reinforce the basis of the living conditions of 
the citizens. We witnessed Holy Allah's grants and gifts as soon as he provided 

[us with additional powers. No praise would be enough to thank Him. In this 
transitory world happiness and sorrow, and brilliant and ordinary days come one 

[after another. Sometimes some of the tasks we undertake may end in failure. 
Even if the people of ill-will have time to think that these failures will do harm 

I to us or will put unexpected obstacles before our wishes and will, there are 
many unimaginable sacred grants under the celestial secrets. The residents of 

I this world know that whenever such grants are bestowed, being on our side 
results in safety and comfort; and being suspicious of us, and engaging in 
conspiracies against us ends in discomfort and regret. We have come to fulfil 
our responsibilities before Allah for all that He gave us either secretly or openly. 
We have adopted the Qur'anic verse which runs, "Say, Allah is Compassionate 
and Merciful," as our principle. We witnessed the results of the verse, "If you 

' praise me, I shall increase that which I bestow 

"upon you. e always focused on the people's problems that 

we were ordered by Allah to protect when we were fulfilling responsibilities. 

We did all that we could to disseminate justice. We appointed experienced and 
' ethical representatives to every corner of the country. We ordered them to 

follow and organize the affairs of the Muslim community. 

■Whenever we witnessed someone engaging in a crime or in a deed not approved 

[by us, we deemed it proper to change that which was being conducted; in this 
regard we caused no delays. With Allah's help and grace, state affairs are 

I improving in a way to satisfy us. The affairs being conducted under our 
Sultanate have been arranged properly. Those whom we trained range from 
Governors presiding over the farthest points of T rkistan to Indian princes and 
Soltans, and to other states' Soltans and governors that rule in the terrain that 

Lstretches till the Greek and Western lands, and they are appointed by us and we | 

impose taxes upon them. They are all subject to us. 

The Emir Muhammed Yolabi was commissioned, trained and appointed by us. 
I When we appointed him to the governor's office in G rgen, he showed that he 
Iwas loyal to us and that he was after his subjects' interests. He exhibited 
'examples of wisdom, foresight, ethical standards, and discretion. He started with| 
; this office successfully and completed his duties in the same way. Our valuable 

traditions required us to do what the heritage of the dead instructed us to do and 

as such, and in consideration o his successful time in office, 


, we commissioned his son to the same office. We thought he would follow the 
I path led by his father in terms of loyalty, goodness and taking care of his 
subjects' interests, and that he would imitate what he had heard and listened to 
from his father. Therefore we provided him with many privileges. For 


a while he acted in the way we expected. He displayed progress and established 
I good relations. This continued until he saw himself as wealthier and more 
powerful than he actually was. He then started behaving arrogantly and enabled 
the Devil to create tensions, in the way decreed by the Qur'an: "No, the man 
became greedy for he saw his predictions came to be true." If an administrator 
enables the Devil to create tensions and his affairs do not proceed well, then his 
subjects will have to lead a life under cruelty and in misfortune since he 
I digressed from the true path and led an unfavourable life. In that case punishing 
I that administrator, taking backfrom him the lands and subjects under his office, 
overcoming the public unrest, and getting him to taste the sorrowful pain of his 
; unfavourable deeds, and relieving people of their misfortune and his cruelty 
became a responsibility that had to be fulfilled. When we hoisted our flag in that | 
region everyone saw what he was worth for what he had done. His armies and 
I warriors he had been breedingfor long could not even resist a single fist of our 
^soldiers. Those who were present there sawfor sure that he made a grave 

listake by trusting his army as ever and that type of mistake would even cause 
^the Devil to find a place to flee to. 

[Now that we had confidence in Allah's might and power, and in celestial 
[patronage, this very numerous army of the traitor was ruined as decreed in the 
Holy Qur'an: "We made him like the reaped corn. It was as if he weren't rich the 
day before." When it was evident that the war followed a course to our benefit, 
those warriors who startedfleeing and wandering to andfro, begged mercy 
I everywhere and sought our commanders' and soldiers' compassion. After that, in | 
lline with the dignity granted to us by Allah and thanks to His Mercy (Highest of 
rthe Praises be to Him) weforgave them all in accordance with our virtues which 
Itell us to assist those 


[who yielded to mishaps and to forgive the criminals, and as per the decree 
/hich ran, "You won't be condemned today." We declared to the residents of 

■^G rgen and its vicinities that we welcomed the peoples ofamul and Tabarystan, 
and those urban residents and others living near the sea. We told them we shared 
their feelings. Thus, we paid them special respect, gave them privileges over 
other people under different governors. And we provided them with the comfort, 
safety and justice for which they have been longing for years. 

We expressed thanks to Allah (He is the Almighty and the Great Allah) and held| 
I discussions where different viewpoints were expressed. We made a decision to 
Isubject the residents of certain towns, soldiers and civilians, all regional 
I residents, castles and residences in those districts, treasures, plains, mountains, 

sites on the ground and the sea to the patronage and order of the new governor. 1 1 
. appointed my son Mdhk Gyyasetdin we'd-d -ny',j Mdhk'fl-I Islam Mesud 

(May he have a long life) as the new governor. He is of a pure Seljuk T rkmen 
' generation. He agrees to be bound by our traditions and developed 

administrative skills; he intends to hoist theflag of the religion and establish the 

sacred law of Islam; he shows respect to Allah (May his name become famous); 
I he is concerned over the elderly, and he is skilled at establishing proper relations 

with his subjects. So skilled is he that though he is young, even experienced old 

men who sufferedfrom the pains of life have much to learn from him. We 
I trained him (May Allah give him long life, peace and may He protect him) so 

that he could preside over the whole world. We declaredpublicly that he would 

be the Soltan. This declaration is still valid. 

I Without regard to this declaration, and now that he has become extremely 
interested in the affairs of that country, we 


1 ordered this decree. We confirm in practice that this decree and instruction will 
be valid in consideration of Allah's words in the sacred Qur'an: "We will release 
' another verse in place of any other one that we lifted or made you forget, it will 
j be similar to or better than theformer one." This change in office has evidently 
I nothing to do with former issues. When taken into careful consideration, this 
change gives us the opportunity to say, "We dethroned the giant and placed 
there S le'man instead." Those who have common sense know that this sets a 
wise example and it will not cause any repentance. Praise be to Allah for He 
rewards those who re . ect, confirm, prove, resolve and judge. We are always 
indebted to Him. From now on my dear son's (may he always be glorious) 
orders and instructions will be valid whenever he wishes them to be valid. His 
decisions equal ours in that they will apply to detentions or releases, approvals 
Landre sals, dismissal,forgiving orpunishing criminals, sending Ifu 

or not sending to exile. We order that everyone should recognize this as such. 

We state that his orders and prohibitions will be deemed to be of ours in every 
I respect and everywhere. We order him to obey Allah in all that he does either 

openly or secretly, and to follow the way of loyalty andfear toward Allah (He is 
, High and Almighty) so that he may find peace in both worlds. For "He who 
I fears from Allah will attain to superiority." With respect to the establishment of 
I the sacred law of Islam, May Allah make him very respectful to the judges, 
I religious leaders and men of letters (Allah be pleased with them all) who are 

responsible for the protection of the Prophet's heritage. He will help them in 

carrying out legal transactions and making decisions. He will display signs of 
(persistence andfaith to the infidel in battles against the infidel who live on the 

borders of Dehistan and M 'ngyylak. 

He will, when necessa , crush or destroy them as 390 

decreed by Allah: "Obey him in the way you are to, it is Allah that chose you." 

He will give utmost importance to the safety of travellers and passages on the 
j ground and the sea. He will be sensitive toward farther regions that require 
awareness all the time. He will punish those engaged in improper deeds, 
! infidelity and theft in line with what Allah (He is the High and the Almighty) 
says: "Those who act contrary to Allah and His representatives will be punished 
I in the following way: they will either be killed or crucified, or their hand and 
legs are cut, or they are sent to exile." He will appoint wise and experienced 
commanders who are loyal to castles and important locations. He will be 
sensitive on this issue and neverforget that he should always keep it so. He will 
exhibit unlimited respectfor administrators and men of reputation that live in 
Horasan, Iraq and Mesopotamia, according to the level of the posts they hold. 
I He will listen to their advice. He will receive everybody's opinion carefully, 
f analyse different viewpoints and do whatever is most beneficial according to 
I him. He will comply with justice in all that he does. He will do every job to the 
[full, without its remaining arbitrary or incomplete. He will consult experienced 
lolder people who are loyal before he does anything. He will adopt it as his main 
"goal to win peoples' hearts in administrative affairs and provide them with 
comfort. By the same token, he will never let the servants, slaves or thefreed 
individuals become open or secret enemies to one another. For wishes and 
disputes among the public might result in violations, fights and bloodshed. He 
will fix various types of gifts and grants according to the type of service 
I rendered by everyone, and he will give these gifts. 

le will not immediately punish those people under his patronage if they commit 
[ a crime. He will not act in haste 


and punish others. He will not punish soldiers and his officers in haste. Unless 
evident or proven, he will not decree a punishment for any crime. For sure, if he 
mows of the treachery and the evils of another person he will notforgive them 

since the greatness of a ruler depends on to what extent his orders are being 
confirmed and executed. He will tell his officers not to make citizensface 
unnecessary difficulties. He will order his officers to collect various types of 

I taxes fixed by law (the Qur'an, 16: 92) in a polite manner, not to charge the 
public extra amounts, and to protect those who are subject to them under justice 
and law. "For sure, Allah orders that you be generous, just and lawful to those 
nearby. He prohibits badness, excessiveness and murders. He gives you the 

L advice. He orders these so that maybe you could take examples from these." 

liWhen he listens to the cases brought before the head of the court of Mazali, he 
will order him to pay all due attention, to listen to all the parties' statements 
carefully, to take back the right of the oppressed from the oppressor, and give 

, the oppressed their rights. He will warn him often so that he will not divert from | 
truth, will avoid intolerance, hypocrisy, bigotry, andfraud. 

Dear son, the greatest ruler is the one who will believe that our words in this 
instruction are compliant with Allah's order: "O David, Verily We rendered you 
our representative on earth. Judge then between people injustice." (The Qur'an, 

1 38:25) 

The decree follows: G rgen, Tabarystan, Dehistan, Bistam and Damgan's 
I officers, tradesmen and residents, either slave or free, (May Allah grant them 
I prosperity!) should recognize the great ruler as their Soltan and ruler. They 

should be honest when they submit to him. They should submit to whatever is 

ruled by him, and serve him frankly. They should try to fuyil his orders as soon 

as possible. They 


should not avoid the instructions of their officers and find excuses. They should 
I know that his decrees are the same as ours, and his approval of or anger toward 
a particular ;ssue is the same as our approval of or anger toward that particular 
issue. They should consult his representatives for their wages and means of 
subsistence. All wealthy people, citizens and military leaders should consult the 
I supreme court composed of trus orthy members. Taxes fixed upon his orders 
land decrees should be paid. We hope they will remember our administration as 
"one that gave benefits to them. 
Another decree: 

[Appointment to governor's office in Sarahs 

The sustenance of the state and the regularity of its affairs depend on the fruits 
I ofjustice and on how these fruits taste. The Soltan of the world will only have 
I Allah's grace if he rules justly. Since we have started ruling this world by Allah's 

will, we have been spending every effort to provide an equal amount of 
I protection for everyone and to approach everyone with mercy. This task upon us | 

is an order from Allah. We take care of the residents of Sarahs, may Allah _ 

protect them, with due attention and mercy. Thus, the administrator who will 
I lead these people must be experienced, persevering, persistent and to the fore in 

the virtues. He should know about the pleasures and sorrows of life. Nejmeddin 
1 yark bears all these qualities. 

"He spent the most beautiful times of his life at the disposal of his nation. He 
engaged in significant affairs, he assumed high posts and he proved to be 
successful. By Allah's will, we deemed it proper to appoint him as the governor 
of Sarahs and vicinities. This was a post that was always the share of selected 
people. We ordered Nejmeddin to stick to his duties with a pure heart and 
relaxed soul and 


"solve disputes in a confident manner. We ask him to act kindly and respectfully 
j toward religious leaders and scientists, and care for all people with feelings of 
1 mercy. He will be responsible for their safety and peace. Poor men should not be 
Isubject to cruel acts as stated in a proverb, "The day belongs to he who has a 
'strong hand." Foreign soldiers and commanders of armies should not be 
j permitted to collect taxes from the public except upon displaying a document 
1 obtainedfrom the supreme authorities. 

He will prevent the citizensfrom paying arbitrarilyfixed taxes, he will leave no 
room for privileges, he will protect peace and justice. 

I According to this decree, the tradesmen, religious leaders, sheikhs and the 
Idescendants of the Prophet and residents of Sarahs will show respect to 
[Nejmeddin as long as he continues fulfilling his responsibilities, and will consult 
I him in every matter. They will treat well his representative. Baha ddin, 

Horasan's Governor, should support Nejmeddin in every respect. The two will 
I join in maintaining the safety of citizens depending on law, and help the citizens 
' carry out their transactions. The administrative office's representative will 

inform Nejmeddin's representative as to the affairs being conducted, and the two " 
1 will protect the rights of the citizens. All Turkic people and Tajiks will be bound 

by this order and they should be respectful toward the administration of the 
' governor. For this type of administration is totally ifferent fro the state's 
j administrations in other places. Nejmeddin's representative will be responsible 
[for the fulfilment of this order, and the wage and taxes that relate to him should 

3e fixed upon the decision to be made. May Allah help and be with you! 
I My dear T rkmen! 

I Find below another decree, read and learn from it! It 


Lbelongs to your forefathers. But it is a guideline for us to select administrators 

even today. 

lAppointment to the vice-Chair's office in the Council of Merw 

Merw is the place where the Sultanate is, where the official flag waves, and 
I where Allah's grace and support embraces the Seljuk generation. Therefore, 
attention should be paid so that it is different from and more organized than 
other parts of the country. Our citizens who are far away from the centre 
and its periphery, and those under our administration will always i 

benefitfrom our mercy and compassion. We appoint our councils' 
trustworthy, skilled, successful and experienced members who know much 
about the details of the taxation matters of the region and who were 
examined by usfor the offices that need to befilled. The chair of that city's 
council was the famous scientist Zeyneddin Seyitfor a long time. By Allah's 
f will and after his re-election to this office, we encumbered him with this 
duty again. We had confidence in his courage, his foresight, his skills and 
kind manners, his high level of scholarship and piety. He is an exceptional 
talent with all these qualities. So many and great are the services he i 

rendered to his nation that no reward could be proper for him, for he 
deserves more than anything that could be granted to him. His excellent 
poems and prose praising the state and used as adornment in many books 
will live forever. They are such valuable pieces that they are beyond i 

comparison. A man with such qualities will never lose his dignity. The 
office of the chair of the financial institutions was always assumed by his 
deputies. Zeyneddin (May Allah grant him more) was always at our 
disposal and he was responsible for the fulfilment of a very important task 
in the palace. But we were informed of the fact at a time of , 


Zeyneddin's absence (May Allah grant him more power) that the supreme 
governor and his family were being made certain payments regarding some 
of their private property and securities and estates in a way that would not 
please the council and that would not provide comfort for the subjects. And 
following Zeyneddin's report, and in consideration of what was told to us, 
we ordered Zeyneddin (May Allah give him power) to deal with the case 
and to organize matters. Although our palace and council was devoid of the 
honour they would have had in the presence of Zeyneddin, we gave priority 
to the fulfilment of this task, and gave him (May Allah protect him) the 
responsibilities relating to the taxation matters regarding the city of Mei-w 
and its vicinities, our property and other affairs of the year 43 together with 
Lthe collection of production tax. We authorized him to pursue this task 

confidently and in a safe way, and to assess duly the former and recent 
payment relating to the previous governor's private property, securities and 
estates. He will send just, considerate, pious, and religiously observant 
collectors everywhere, and every collector will keep books in a proper way 
through following the true path, will determine payments to be made and 
submit the books to the council in a timely and tidyform, and inform the 
council of the course of events. We ordered Zeyneddin (May Allah help 
him always) to calculate the expenses that would be requiredfor the 
allocations to seyyids (May Allah increase their number) and to find the rest | 
of the taxes, and to fix the resources to be transferred to other famous 
people, and to find the administrative fees (relating to the permanent 
retirement pay of public officials and religious leaders). He will appoint a 
man in whom he has confidence to take care of the spending of these 
resources. If part of the fees or taxes are spent elsewhere, they should be 
returned and restored to their former status, they should be included within 
the amounts allocated for 



j,"'-mous men and restored to their previous condition. He should know 
everything about tax-related issues. He should provide information as to 
who recently started collecting taxes and the amount of tax and the debts to 
be paid by particular individuals. He should keep a record of those taxes 
andfees, reviewformer accounts; should he notice that certain matters were 
not recorded and there were betrayals, then he will know that he has to 
correct these mistakes. 

All representatives should pay due respect to Zeyneddin (May Allah elevate I 
him in rank). He should be provided with the principles regarding the 
resolution of tax-related matters and guiding the collectors in how to 
approach the taxpayers: All collectors of the higher inspection board should 
report to him with respect to income taxes andfees that were deductedfrom 
calculations; he will then review these diligently, and later use them in the 
course of his duties. The representatives of the governor (May Allah help 
them) should continue respecting Zeyneddin and give him the necessary 
means with a view to helping him succeed in his office. The acting chairs 
(May Allah protect them) will give him all the due support they can, they 
will reach agreement with him in every respect, and convey to him and his 
staff their demands in line with the needs of his representatives. All 
deputies, savings personnel and public relations officers, aliens, subjects 
and others (May Allah protect them all) recognize him as the highest of the 
representatives. He will be given a monthly wage, and he will not be i 

objected to in any respect, as indicated in the order and documents. The 
reputable andfamous scientist Nasyheddin (May Allah help him) will use 
all available means with respect to the realization of this decree. Show 
espect to Zeyneddin, have confidence in what he issues, and help him gain 


personal comfort. By Allah's will obey him absolutely." 


My dear T rkmen ! 

Ithink you will be able to understand after reading these decrees how our 
ancestors chose administrators for offices and how they fulfilled their 
responsibilities nine hundred years ago. 

My dear T rkmen Nation ! 

The way I'm leading is that of freedom. 

Freedom is the essential condition for one's self-esteem. In this context, as a ] 
social value, freedom was one of the main characteristics of all the ages that | 
the T rkmens passed through. Freedom is inherent in the T rkmen. 

However, freedom, an aspect of the everlasting T rkmen way, should have 
a more concrete and peculiar meaning in our age. 

lam attempting to have a logical kind of freedom accepted and approved by 
this nation. Otherwise, freedom will turn into irregularity and destroy the 
essentials of the state and hann the society. 

There should be a clear borderline between freedom and corruption. 
Freedom is by definition dependent on law and it should comply with law. 

If there is no freedom, then there will be no good in this society. And the 
absence of law means the lack of society itself. The essential meaning of 
law is the individual's compliance with the will accepted by the major part 
of society. 

The majority is the sum of thousands and millions of individuals. In other 
words, it is the individual himself that determines the destiny of the 
individual. This is the basic meaning that underlies freedom. The T rkmen 
has main- 


tained his national values and traditions for centuries. These values and 
traditions mean the adoption of the majority's will as the social principle. 
The T rkmen nation is a people which has provided the best examples of 
living together. The ancestors of the T rkmens said, "Turn your face to the 
direction where the majority turn their faces." This is freedom. 

-Theway of freedom is the way of the national perceptions and national 

spirit. The national principles relating to the establishment of the T rkmen 
nation's life depend on the experience of freedom and the essentiality of 
making use of it. Without taking into consideration the national culture, not 
every sociocultural development can be agreed by every individual. So such 
developments will only remain on paper. Therefore, it is most important for 
the T rkmen to lead the spiritual way. Walking along this way in 
consideration of contemporary needs, we will make progress more easily. 
The way of freedom of the T rkmens is only co-existent with proper, 
lawful, deeds and spiritual power. Honesty is society's demand from the 
individual; freedom is the value of the individual that finds repetition in 

In order that the nation could have self-confidence, trust in its power and 
future and be proud, the nation should be infon-ned of the eminence of its 

^This is the first condition of not going to extremes. 

^or going to extremes means losing one's way, which means diverting from 
the way. 

For the first time in T rkmen history, the T rkmen's past is praised as a 

For the first time in the nation's history, a T rkmen state has been 
established on the basis of its own moral and 


national values, and a flag that displays these values has been formed. This 
is the sign of the independence of the sovereign state. 

Our flag is sacred. 

After centuries, our people have adopted the official flag in harmony with 
their national character and the traditions of their forefathers and have 
become the owner of their green flag. 

The flag of the T rkmen state has become a source of national pride. This 
is the standard that makes our nation proceed and our spirits elevate. 

The souls of our ancestors have been absorbed into our flag. 

The placement of the T rkmen carpet motifs on our flag symbolizes the 
importance of national values and national unity. 

On the T rkmen flag are those characteristics we share with our ancestors 
and their mistakes from which we take lessons. Many T rkmen states 
unfortunately did not pay due attention to the national language of the 
T rkmen. 

The national language is an essential quality of our state and society. We 
have been using the T rkmen language as our official language. Otherwise, 
our essential quality, nationality, would not be able to penetrate into the 
meaning of our state and its properties. 

The T rkmens have shown in the five ages they have survived that they are | 
capable of living after overcoming many difficulties. The T rkmen who 
overcame these difficulties proved that he was the T rkmen. The way of 


T rkmens led from one summit to another. The way of the contemporary 
age unified the T rkmen nation and the individual. Therefore our way is 
one of unity and integration. 

The T rkmens need a centre of attraction that will hold them united in 
material and spiritual terms in the new age. It is only the state and its 
national principles that will meet this need. 

Only one thing remains of the man, the tasks he accomplished. It is not the 
office we assume or the task we undertake, but the way we follow that 

It should be our main goal to leave a valuable memoir to future generations 
who will follow the Golden path we chose. We should work, live and 
produce in consideration of this aim. 

The essence of the nation lies in its perception of the world. 

All the material and spiritual wealth, language, religion, culture, state and 
society of the nation are founded on this essence. If this essence lacks, none 
of these can be properly established. For these do not depend on law, but 
rely upon their own course. An unguided course would bring about 
regression and dispersal. 

The Ruhnama brings the national perception into a system and organization. 
From now on, the national future of the T rkmens will be completely 
guaranteed in practice. 

ly way is the way of our essential qualities; it is the way where spiritual 

qualities become guiding principles. 

Setting principles means holding things united without releasing them or 
just saying, "Go find your own way." 

My way is that of spiritual strength. 

My way is the one which gives the will of history to the hand of the nation. 

My way is one where national perceptions and spiritual power unite and 
become one with the future. 

The tone of the future is to depend on the characteristics of the national 
perception and spiritual strength. 

The T rkmen has a great future, a famous future, for he has his past and 

The difference of my way lies in that it not only covers the past and this day | 
but also understands the future and displays it in full to the nation. 

My dear fellow countrymen! 

There are different ideas and sources of wisdom in the world: Some are 
happy saying that the world is proceeding toward the Judgment Day and 
many catastrophes will take place soon (as if these will facilitate their own 
lives). And some say the old world is retreating to its previous course. Just 
as it is not us who set the world on its axis and caused the world to move 
round its orbit so too it is not us who will be able to change it altogether! 
The world is at the disposal of Allah Almighty, the Highest of the High and 
the One. 

Peoples, nations, states, countries of the world are proceeding toward 
unification, becoming brothers, friends, prosperous and peaceful. The world] 
is proceeding toward truth, 


justice, peace and free labOULThe meaning of humanity is constitution, 
production, seeking, searching and establishing. 

Dispersal has caused many problems for the world. The solution is 
solidarity and unity. The good and the bad, the light and darkness, 
benevolence and malevolence are almost intermingled, but the good will 
supersede the bad, and benevolence will preside over malevolence. 

The world is proceeding toward a bright future. The people who have good 
will and who are honest believe so. Benevolence, good will and brightness 
come from Allah. 

My beloved people! 

We have set out on a noble way. The T rkmen said, "Listen to others but 
do what you will." Let us work, for when we do so, we do it for our nation 
(and land! Let us build beautiful structures, for we do it for our sons, 
children and grandchildren! 

Setting up, bringing into existence, creating and constructing is the way of 
Allah the Almighty and His Prophets. Up to now there is no fault with those] 
who follow this way. 

Let us establish ways of friendship, brotherhood, unity, justice and proper 
knowledge. Let us be friends and find benefits, for none will be harmed by 

For the sake of our ancestors who founded great states and led prosperous 
lives, for the sake of brave men and heroes who died for this country, let us 
make independent and impartial T rkmenistan a great and powerful state. 


For the sake of those who have miraculous powers, sacred people, men of 
wisdom, let us establish, produce, have access to information, for proper 
knowledge should be the foundation of our country! 

Let us have the ability to foresee the future, for the sake of brave men like 
Gorkut Ata, for this ability should be our country's foundation! 

Let us love one another for the sake of our forefathers who are like saints 
and our grandmothers who are like angels. Let us be brothers and 
confidantes to one another. May the nation be built of love and peace! 

Let us make this land for which our ancestors spilled their blood and for 
which our mothers shed their tears a place where prosperity abounds 
together with happiness, smiles and joy; for this is a sacred land; for this is 
a holy land! 

May our father Oguz Han, who is hke a prophet, be a witness to what I say: 
the way I choose is one of justice! 

May our father G n Han, who spreads sacred hghts from the skies, be a 
witness to what I say: the way I'm leading is the enhghtened way of truth! 

May our father Ay Han, who spreads silver lights all through the night, be a 
witness to what I say: the way led by the Ttirkmens is the Golden way! 

May our father Yyldyz Han, who keeps a close eye on T rkmenistan as 
ever, be a witness to what I say: our way is the prophets' way! 

May our father G k Han, who inspires our families and hearts today and 
tomorrow, be a witness to the T rkmen's 


efforts to warm the heart of the world and spread its merciful light to the 

May our father De iz Han, who sends rains to the T rkmen land from the 
North, be a witness to the T rkmen's enthusiasm, T rkmen's progress; the 
power of the people is like the power of the flood, no power can stand 
before us! 

May our father Dag Han, who maintains a close eye on us as ever, be a 
witness to the T rkmen's wish to attain to the highest spiritual levels! The 
world may reside in our heart, and we are a nation that deserves to reside in 
the heart of the world! 

See for yourselves my brothers, my elders, my grandfathers, my 
grandmothers, my sisters, my sons, my grandsons, Ruhnama is complete 
now: This is your book, although I am the one who wrote it. This book is 
your book; it is the T rkmen's book; it is a statement of the T rkmen's 
goals and desires. 

Ruhnama is our way! Every T rkmen will know himself after reading 
Ruhnama. Peoples of our other nations who read the Ruhnama will 
understand and know the T rkmen! 

My T rkmen nation, may you never be belittled before a great nation, and 
may you never grow greedy before a small nation. The T rkmens will 
maintain the balance in international relations. Let this balance be an 
unshakable pillar of the T rkmen policy! 


May your ways be enlightened, your future be filled with the sacred light, 
your age be of gold, my eternal and immortal Ttirkmen! 

May the T rkmen stand as long as the world stands. May T rkmenistan 
stand as long as the world stands. May the independent and impartial 
T rkmenistan last forever!